SOC 3422 Week 2
Popular in Social Movements
Popular in Sociology
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3422 at University of Utah taught by Wade Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Social Movements in Sociology at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Social Movements – Week 2 th st January 19 , and 21 , 2016 Value Added Approach o o Real World Examples Los Angeles, April 29, 1992 Rioting in response to Rodney King being beaten by white police officers who were acquitted. Racial tensions erupted. 50 people dead more than 1,200 people injured and over 12,000 arrested. Pretty clear correlations with strains and the rioting Grievances alone don’t account for collective action Strains are relatively constant. Unemployment was not a new problem Levels in 1992 were lower than they had been in the past And it cannot account for the collective action that started the riots Precipitating Factors – other stressors that cause strain and also lead to the collective action All four officers were acquitted of assault and 3 of the 4 were acquitted for using excessive force “Many blacks in the city have become increasingly resentful as various immigrant groups have come to Los Angeles and climbed past them to prosperity. In the last decade, Korean merchants have come to own the majority of businesses in the South-Central area, which is predominantly black and Hispanic.” The problems were between races other than Black and White. Much of the tension was between Blacks and Asians that increased the tensions in general and also were a large factor in the riots O’Shea Jackson (1969- ) (Ice Cube) – Black Korea All he wants is to be able to go to the liquor store and buy what he wants. But the shop owners are always suspicious of him because he is Black. The discrimination as well as the fact that the providers of goods are profiting off of the Black community. Other minorities are profiting off of the Blacks. He is upset because the other immigrants own all of the stores in the Black community. Why Was Ice Cube so aggrieved? o The majority of the liquor stores were owned by Korean immigrants. Many of them did not live in the neighborhood that they owned the business and then discriminated against the people who lived in the community that they had CHOSEN to start a business in March 1991 15 year old African American girl went to a market owned and run by a Korean family. The girl went in to buy a bottle of Orange juice had her backpack because she had come from school. She was walking to the counter to pay for the juice and the woman working there accused her of trying to steal the orange juice. The girl decided it wasn’t worth the trouble and put the orange juice on the counter and walked out of the store. The woman picked up a rifle and shot her in the back. She was charged with voluntary manslaughter. Did not spend a day in jail. She was sentenced to probation. Later police found surveillance footage that showed her with the juice in one hand and money in the other to pay for the juice. “Like the common shorthand ‘9/11’ used by Americans for the terror attacks, the Rodney King riots are referred to as sa-i-gu – literally ‘4/29’ – by Koreans 45% of damage during riots were suffered by Korean business owners th April 29 Rioting begins April 30th Dusk to dawn curfew imposed California Army National Guard deployed (2,000-10,000 soldiers) May 1 st th U.S. Army 40 Infantry Division deployed (4,000 troops) May 2 nd th st th7 Infantry Division (2,000) and 1 Marine Division (1,5000) deployed May 4 Curfew lifted; schools, banks, and businesses reopen th Federal troops and Army National Guard remain until May 14 o Black Lives Matter Structural conduciveness; structural strain; generalizedbelief; precipitating factors; mobilization; social control 2001 should say 2010 By the time the Ferguson protest break out, Ferguson is a racially mixed city. The core is not predominantly Black but the outlying areas are Social media becomes a huge way to get coverage and to get more people to talk about and begin to support or oppose an issue. o Twitter coverage on the bottom and News coverage on the top. Twitter was covering the issue long before the news Similar strains to the Rodney King riots Huge strain and/or grievance that creates more tension for issues Your race plays a large role in your opinion on issues. Often people don’t realize this Generalized beliefs need to be broken down by segments of the population Mobilization o Questions rising over who’s in charge of protests? Is it a social movement or a cluster of unrelated social events? When do they become something larger? Black Lives Matter o The civil rights organizations of the past are not really responsible for the action that is happening in response to this issue. o National Issues were working on support and asking people to go to Washington D.C. o Local groups were beginning to beat these National groups to the punch and began to start protests and things in small towns in their areas before the National Groups could organize something. o Does technology make movements like this make the movements o http://fergusonaction.com/day-of-resistance/ o Social Control National Guard was called to attempt to deal with the protesting. The country sheriff’s office was given control when they could not deal with it We have local, state and federal authorities and they are not always on the same page with each other Social Movement Stages o Emergence Widespread dissatisfaction or a small vanguard (group of leaders who try to do the mobilizing) Coalescence Has to begin to define itself and develop a strategy Develop policies; recruit additional members; work on gaining media attention Institutionalization If they last longer they build up organizational structures They begin to rely less on the charisma of individual leaders and rely more on the expertise of bureaucratic leaders Effectiveness often lessens at this stage o Conflict in literature. Structure is needed to maintain the organization but too much organization lessens the focus on social change Tend to decline at this area for a number of reasons o Success o Failure o Cooptation If leaders start to cozy up with the leaders of the institutions that they are protesting or with government officials or CEO’s. o Repression Most people fear repression o An outcome must be attributable to the movement itself even though there are other things happening at the same time. Labor Unions Fighting for recognition they are fighting for better wages and health care coverage. If the government recognizes them as an organization and they get a seat at the table does not mean that they are going to have a say or get anything that they want out of it. Consider what exactly changes Social attitudes can change before or after the law does o Interracial marriage: the law changed before the attitudes did o Same Sex Marriage: some believed that should be the case before the change was made in the law Personal Changes Biographical Changes o Success Mainstream Acceptance & New Advantages Think Small (singleissue & reformist focus) Employ disruptive tactics (escalation) Formal structures to combat fractionalization Presence of radical competitors (radical flank) Active during crisis periods (war, depression) – forces response from powerful individuals and groups Slavery o Even if you are successful, you always have to fight against rollback o Rollback Abolition after the civil war Jim Crow Various ways that the Southern states restricted the rights of former slaves and Black individuals Even after this massive victory there was a lot of rollback Often times if you want to maintain the changes that you have accomplished you have to keep the pressure on But doing this is very hard. If you create an organization you become less disruptive and it is very difficult to keep people interested Political Opportunity Structures o Social Movement Ingredients Grievances Resources Opportunities Interpretations o “Political Process” Model When? Political opportunity structures When do they occur, when do they begin to mobilize, when do they begin to succeed or fail, when do they disband? Why? Framing processes Efforts of a movement to define itself and become a part of something. Trying to convince others this issue is important How? Resource mobilization Political Opportunities Is the government accepting of what you want? Macro-level Resource Mobilization Meso-level Many resources come from outside the movement The interaction between opportunities and mobilization If you have one and not the other, there won’t be a large amount of success Interpretive Frameworks Micro-level Effects all other aspects of the model o The Rise of Social Movements Social movements represent resistance to power holders The control of coercion and the control of the means of production and the economy Political actors or actors related to the political economy in some fashion o State Formation and Protest Dramatic change in social movements in Great Britain The percentage of all protests directed at parliament as a whole or specific members of parliament The state is becoming more important in the everyday lives of more people so they are voicing their grievances As power centralizes, social movements begin to target power Centralized power creates more grievances Land owner vs. Parliament o The state centralizes and you have different types of grievances than you have had before (like taxes). o Repertories Pre- Modern Parochial Particular Bifurcated Examples: bread riots; attacks on machines; tarring & feathering Modern Cosmopolitan Modular Autonomous Examples: strikes; demonstrations; marches Big Picture o States and social movements co-evolve Communication – facilitates mobilization When it is easier to get from one place to another and easier to communicate with others then it is a lot easier to create groups of people who feel the same way about different things and are more likely to attempt to make change Google traffic in Egypt and Libya o Egypt – lots of traffic and then days where there is no traffic o Libya – lots of traffic and then months where there is no traffic Leaders in both of these areas where the regimes were concerned that the people in the country would use the internet in order to overthrow them and so they shut down the internet. China – concerned about how the internet can be used to create opposition o Rather than shutting down the internet they create a government agency that is in charge of monitoring the internet users and selectively targeting and blocking content that the government deems inappropriate Grievances – don’t take my money, etc. Education – increased awareness and efficacy; empowers individuals Identities – common identities and frameworks Targets – one stop shop New target because you have a centralized target rather than having to attack a fragmented and decentralized government Political opportunity structures o Degree to which the institutionalized political system is open or closed Durable state structures; what type of regime do you have? This determines how susceptible the state is to social movements o State’s capacity and propensity for repression Does the state control the means to repress you and your movement and are they willing to deploy those means? o Stability or instability of elite alignments Are elites centralized or fragmented? If they are fragmented they are competing with each other to get control and may find support in social movements in order to gain the power and control that they want. Civil Rights movement Good example of this o Presence or absence of elite allies Does the movement have friends in high places? o Concrete or “Cross-sectional” Openness of closure of the political system State’s capacity and propensity for repression o Variable or “Dynamic” Stability or instability of elite arrangements Presence or absence of elite allies o Dynamics of mobilization Y axis – mobilization (low to high) X axis – Repression (low to high) Not a simple relationship. Curvilinear When mobilization is low repression is low; when repression is high mobilization is low; when mobilization is high repression is in the middle Mobilization happens the most often in a system that is partially open. Places where people are not in immediate fear of their lives o We tend to think in terms of National political opportunity structures But we do need to think locally also. We may just be focused locally But we also need to think about international forces. They are often very important even for social movements within individual countries o 1968 Czechoslovakia France o 1989 East Germany USSR China “Concrete” Opportunities o France vs. United States Both Democracy France is much more centralized All power resides in Paris. Very strong executive president; very strong beurocracy and the beaurocrats are not elected, so they do not necessarily represent the people but make many important decisions Judicial system cannot overturn laws enacted If you want change you have to go right to the top and because there are not many access points it is often times very confrontational United States Less centralized You can elected congress representative Sue in court for the grievance you are experiencing Lobbying Many access points A lot of access to the government means it is easy to have your voice heard but also sets up the government to not get anything done Degree of Centralization o o Unitary – France o Confederal – Switzerland o Federal – United States o Rail Networks o All rail roads lead to Paris They exist primarily to bring people to and from Paris United States Regional centers rather than all roads leading to Washington D.C. Illustrates the degree of centralization for each country
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