History 1051- Week 2
History 1051- Week 2 32763
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 482 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Freedom of economic success is important Liberty of Politics= Freedom from government o This means that individuals do what they want In PostCivil War southern politics held old habits of social deference o Social deference respectful submission or yielding to the judgment, opinion, will, etc., of another. The supporters of these postwar Democratic leaders referred to them as “redeemers” because they saved the South o Included: a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager to promote a more diversified economy o The white supremacy tolerated a lingering black voice in politics and showed no hurry to raise the barriers of racial segregation in public places The opponents of the redeemers were “Bourbons”, which depicted them as reactionaries (opposing liberal or social liberalization to reform. The achievement of the New South was the promotion of the growth of industry. o The Bourbons led the South into a new economic era The South still lagged economically because of 3 reasons: 1. Education Bourbon governments wanted to cut state schools drastically by cutting taxes Female teacher also only made about $159 yearly They had little to no training and were not well paid The illiteracy rate was between 30% and 45% 2. Agriculture The South produced inefficient agriculture Cotton was the most profitable crop The rate of owning land went from 2/3 to 1/3 Interest rates were high, causing debt, leaving the sharecroppers to pay collateral Farmers were only to plant what could sale, which was mainly cotton Croplien systems: not efficient and kept you in debt 3. Race Not a great deal of racial segregation th th Former slaves held office because of the 14 and 15 Amendments Bourbons tolerated ( They were probusiness and favored storeowners) There were no barriers to keep former slaves from overpowering the poorer white farmers and formed temporary alliances 18901910 Black voting disappeared, many races could not do things together due to (Jim Crow Laws) Whites wanted social deference from blacks o If not received, they would lynch Tindall & Shi Page 538542: The Civil War was finally over in the spring of 1865. o The Union had emerged triumphant o Costed 620,000 lives o Destruction of southern economy and much of its landscape o Some 4 million enslaved Americans had seized their freedom, thanks to the 13 th Amendment, abolishing slavery The era of Reconstruction (18651877) o The efforts made in the United States between 1865 and 1877 to restructure the political, legal, and economic systems in the states that had seceded from the Union. The War’s Aftermath o Many difficult questions were asked o Some northerners wanted the former Confederate states returned to the Union with little or no changes in the region’s social, political, and economic life. o Others wanted southern society punished and transformed Development In the South o To some Americans the Civil War had been more of a social revolution than the War of Independence It reduced the influence of the South’s planter (agriculture/farmer) elite in national politics and elevated the power of the northern “captains of industry.” o The Congress had centralized national power and enacted the Republican economic agenda Passed the Morrill Tariff doubled the average level of import duties National Banking Actcreated a uniform system of banking and banknote currency and helped finance the war Congress also decided that the first transcontinental railroad would run along a northcentral route, from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento, California, and it donated public land and sold bonds to ensure its financing Homestead Act of 1862 provided free federal homesteads of 160 acres to settlers, who had five years to occupy land to gain title Devastation In the South o Throughout the South, property values had collapsed. o Confederate bonds and paper money were worthless o Most railroads were damaged or destroyed o Cotton that escaped destruction was taken by federal troops. o Tobacco production did no regain its prewar level until 1880 o The emotional devastation caused by the war was worse than the physical destruction for many southerners. Families lost sons and husbands, and the veterans who returned had one or more limbs missing A Transformed South o The defeat of the Confederacy transformed much of southern society o Many planters were left homeless and destitute (not having the basic necessities) Legally Free, Socially Bound o In former Confederate states, the newly freed slaves often suffered most of all They weren’t slaves, but they also weren’t citizens The Freedmen’s Bureau o March 3, 1865 The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands Provided such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel as might be needed to relieve suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children o Freedmen’s Bureau declared that freed slaves must be free to choose their own employers, and be paid for their labor Page 553556: The Reconstructed South The Freed Slaves o During the era of Reconstruction, whites (northern and southern) harbored racist views of blacks o Whites used terror, intimidation, and violence to suppress black efforts to gain social and economic equality o The Civil War had brought freedom to enslaved African Americans, but it did not bring them protection against exploitation or abuse. o Participation in the Union army or navy had provided many freedmen with training in leadership o Military service gave many former slaves their first opportunities to learn to read and write o African Americans formed churches after the war o African Americans also wanted to reestablished their families o African Americans also sought to establish schools African Americans In Southern Politics o The new role of African Americans in the politics caused the most controversy o By 1867, former slaves had begun to gain political influence and vote in large numbers This revealed emerging tensions within the African American community th o The 15 Amendment gave all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Carpetbaggers Northerners who allegedly rushed south by the hope of economic opportunity and other attractions that many of them had seen in their Union service. ScalawagsNative white Republicans, opposed secession Page 562575: White Terror o Southern resistance to “Radical rule” increased and turned violent In Grayson County, Texas, three whites murdered three former slaves because they felt the need to “thin the niggers out and drive them to their holes.” o Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was organized in 1866 At first it was a group of pranksters, but later turned to intimidation of blacks and white Republicans Spread across the South Used terrorism to reverse the political balance of power o Three Enforcement Acts (18701871) 1. Gave penalties on anyone who interfered with any citizen’s right to vote 2. Placed the election of congressmen under surveillance by federal election supervisors and marshals 3. (KKK Act) outlawed the characteristic activities of the KKK The Enforcement Acts suffered from weak and inconsistent execution Panic and Redemption o The prestigious investment bank of Jay Cooke and Company went bankrupt on September 18, 1873 and the stock market was forced close for 10 days o The Panic of 1873 set off a depression that lasted six years The longest and most severe that Americans had yet suffered Thousands of businesses went bankrupt, people lost jobs Greenbacks became the chief circulating medium a U.S. legaltender note, printed in green on the back since the Civil War, originally issued against the credit of the country The Compromise of 1877 o Was the compromise between Republicans and southern Democrats that ended Radical Reconstruction o Republicans promised that if Hayes were elected, he would withdraw the last federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina, letting the Republican governments there collapse. o The Democrats promised to withdraw their opposition to Hayes, accept in good faith the Reconstruction amendments, and refrain from partisan reprisals against Republicans in the South The End of Reconstruction o In 1877, President Hayes withdrew federal governments from Louisiana and South Carolina. o Over the next three decades the protection of black civil rights crumbled o Radical Reconstruction never offered a commitment to black civil rights and th th th social equality, but it left and enduring legacy: 13 , 14 , and 15 Amendments. It created future advances Page 606612: The South and the West Transformed After the Civil War, the South and the West provided enticing opportunities for American inventiveness and entrepreneurship. The Myth of The New South o The New South “presents a perfect democracy” of small farms and diversifying industries. This was only Henry W. Grady’s vision o The New South vision of a more diversified economy made a lot of sense, but it was only partially fulfilled o The chief accomplishment of the New south movement was a dramatic expansion of the region’s textile industry From 18801890, the number of cotton mills in the South grew from 161 to 400 o Tobacco growing and cigarette production also increased significantly James B. Duke The America Tobacco Company o Coal production in the South grew from 5 million tons in 1875 to 49 million tons by 1900 o The South in 1900 remained the least urban, industrial, educated, and prosperous region. o A prolonged deflation in crop prices affected the entire economy during the last third of the nineteenth century, which made it more difficult to own land o Sharecropper those who have nothing to offer the landowner but their labor They worked the owner’s land in return for seed, fertilizer, and supplies and a share of the crop The sharecroppertenant system was inefficient and corrupting Brown and Shannon Page 5477: Reading the 1894 Pullman Strike The Pullman labor strike (May 11,1894) tied up rail lines from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean July 5, 1894 Federal troops marched into Chicago to break the strike at its center o Harding witnessed the uprising of thousands of unemployed workers He saw twenty railcars overturned, gangs of boys destroying a railway switching mechanism, and watched the smoke billow up from railcars set afire The Pullman strike begun eight weeks earlier, in May 1894, as a peaceful labor protest against a single Chicago employer. Long before the strike, the Pullman Palace Car Company and its president, George Pullman, were famous. The World’s Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate industrial progress in the USA, stimulated full employment and high wages in Pullman town o But the NY stock market crash led to the bankruptcy of 16 thousand businesses o The depression of 1894 was the worst the USA had ever suffered economically In the town of Pullman, the 1894 depression caused layoffs, wage cuts, and increased resentment over the company’s housing policies One side General Managers’ Association (GMA) , which represented the twentyfour railroads with terminals in Chicago (George Pullman) Other side ARU, a brandnew , national, “industrial” union in which skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled railroad workers joined together in one industrywide association o Railroad owners feared the potential power of the ARU o Led by Eugene V. Debs During the first week of the showdown, nearly 100,000 railway workers refused to handle Pullman cars, and the GMA’s railway companies refused to run trains without Pullman cars o Which caused delays and disruptions During the second week, control of events shifted from the railway workers to the federal government. The injunctions and the appearance of troops in various cities sparked the strikes first violence, including street protests, attacks on railway property, fires in rail yards, and violent confrontations. The chaos resulting from the boycott lasted from June 26 to July 10, but those two weeks brought a bloody end to the ARU’s national effort and to the local Pullman strike. o Eugene V. Debs was arrested. He was charged with violating the court injunction, and was eventually sentenced to six months in prison The U.S. Strike Commission’s recommendations were that unions be legitimized by government policy and the government set up a system for labor in order to avoid strikes in the future The advantages of newspapers providing details, reflecting the immediate climate, and appealing to a particular readership are the very reason we must also be cautious in using the information we find in newspapers. o Disadvantages include: reporters are on a deadline which could lead to wrong or incomplete facts and/or the editorial being biased. Factual Claims statements of names, dates, and evens that you could verify by consulting others sources Editorial bias becomes apparent in the newspaper’s choice of words or omission of some information and its emphasis on other information The Pullman strike and the report that emanated from it marked a significant shift in public support for government as a strike mediator, not a strike breaker.
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