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History 1051- Week 2

by: Asia Caldwell

History 1051- Week 2 32763

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 32763 > History 1051 Week 2
Asia Caldwell
GPA 3.68

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These are the lecture notes from Wednesday and the notes from the required readings we were assigned due by Friday. The notes are lengthy, but very beneficial.
History 1051
Dr. Prokopowicz
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 482 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Wednesday, January 20, 2016  Freedom of economic success is important  Liberty of Politics= Freedom from government o This means that individuals do what they want  In Post­Civil War southern politics held old habits of social deference  o Social deference­ respectful submission or yielding to the judgment, opinion, will, etc., of another.  The supporters of these postwar Democratic leaders referred to them as “redeemers”  because they saved the South o Included: a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager  to promote a more diversified economy  o The white supremacy tolerated a lingering black voice in politics and showed no  hurry to raise the barriers of racial segregation in public places  The opponents of the redeemers were “Bourbons”, which depicted them as reactionaries  (opposing liberal or social liberalization to reform.  The achievement of the New South was the promotion of the growth of industry. o The Bourbons led the South into a new economic era   The South still lagged economically because of 3 reasons: 1. Education  Bourbon governments wanted to cut state schools drastically by cutting  taxes  Female teacher also only made about $159 yearly  They had little to no training and were not well paid  The illiteracy rate was between 30% and 45% 2.  Agriculture  The South produced inefficient agriculture  Cotton was the most profitable crop  The rate of owning land went from 2/3 to 1/3  Interest rates were high, causing debt, leaving the sharecroppers to pay  collateral   Farmers were only to plant what could sale, which was mainly cotton   Crop­lien systems: not efficient and kept you in debt 3.  Race  Not a great deal of racial segregation th th  Former slaves held office because of the 14  and 15  Amendments  Bourbons tolerated ( They were pro­business and favored storeowners)  There were no barriers to keep former slaves from overpowering the  poorer white farmers and formed temporary alliances  1890­1910­ Black voting disappeared, many races could not do things  together due to (Jim Crow Laws)  Whites wanted social deference from blacks o If not received, they would lynch Tindall & Shi Page 538­542:  The Civil War was finally over in the spring of 1865. o The Union had emerged triumphant o Costed 620,000 lives o Destruction of southern economy and much of its landscape o Some 4 million enslaved Americans had seized their freedom, thanks to the 13   th Amendment, abolishing slavery  The era of Reconstruction (1865­1877) o The efforts made in the United States between 1865 and 1877 to restructure the  political, legal, and economic systems in the states that had seceded from the  Union.   The War’s Aftermath o Many difficult questions were asked o Some northerners wanted the former Confederate states returned to the Union  with little or no changes in the region’s social, political, and economic life.  o Others wanted southern society punished and transformed  Development In the South o To some Americans the Civil War had been more of a social revolution than the  War of Independence  It reduced the influence of the South’s planter (agriculture/farmer) elite in  national politics and elevated the power of the northern “captains of  industry.” o The Congress had centralized national power and enacted the Republican  economic agenda  Passed the Morrill Tariff­ doubled the average level of import duties  National Banking Act­created a uniform system of banking and bank­note  currency and helped finance the war  Congress also decided that the first transcontinental railroad would run  along a north­central route, from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento,  California, and it donated public land and sold bonds to ensure its  financing  Homestead Act of 1862­ provided free federal homesteads of 160 acres to  settlers, who had five years to occupy land to gain title  Devastation In the South o Throughout the South, property values had collapsed. o Confederate bonds and paper money were worthless o Most railroads were damaged or destroyed o Cotton that escaped destruction was taken by federal troops. o Tobacco production did no regain its prewar level until 1880 o The emotional devastation caused by the war was worse than the physical  destruction for many southerners.  Families lost sons and husbands, and the veterans who returned had one or more limbs missing  A Transformed South o The defeat of the Confederacy transformed much of southern society o Many planters were left homeless and destitute (not having the basic necessities)  Legally Free, Socially Bound o In former Confederate states, the newly freed slaves often suffered most of all  They weren’t slaves, but they also weren’t citizens  The Freedmen’s Bureau o March 3, 1865­ The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands­ Provided such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel as might be needed to  relieve suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children o Freedmen’s Bureau­ declared that freed slaves must be free to choose their own  employers, and be paid for their labor Page 553­556: The Reconstructed South  The Freed Slaves o During the era of Reconstruction, whites (northern and southern) harbored racist  views of blacks o Whites used terror, intimidation, and violence to suppress black efforts to gain  social and economic equality o The Civil War had brought freedom to enslaved African Americans, but it did not  bring them protection against exploitation or abuse. o Participation in the Union army or navy had provided many freedmen with  training in leadership o Military service gave many former slaves their first opportunities to learn to read  and write o African Americans formed churches after the war o African Americans also wanted to reestablished their families o African Americans also sought to establish schools  African Americans In Southern Politics o The new role of African Americans in the politics caused the most controversy   o By 1867, former slaves had begun to gain political influence and vote in large  numbers  This revealed emerging tensions within the African American community th o The 15  Amendment gave all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.  Carpetbaggers­ Northerners who allegedly rushed south by the hope of economic  opportunity and other attractions that many of them had seen in their Union service.  Scalawags­Native white Republicans, opposed secession Page 562­575:  White Terror o Southern resistance to “Radical rule” increased and turned violent  In Grayson County, Texas, three whites murdered three former slaves  because they felt the need to “thin the niggers out and drive them to their  holes.” o Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was organized in 1866  At first it was a group of pranksters, but later turned to intimidation of  blacks and white Republicans  Spread across the South  Used terrorism to reverse the political balance of power o Three Enforcement Acts (1870­1871) 1. Gave penalties on anyone who interfered with any citizen’s right to  vote 2. Placed the election of congressmen under surveillance by federal  election supervisors and marshals 3. (KKK Act) outlawed the characteristic activities of the KKK  The Enforcement Acts suffered from weak and inconsistent execution  Panic and Redemption o The prestigious investment bank of Jay Cooke and Company went bankrupt on  September 18, 1873 and the stock market was forced close for 10 days o The Panic of 1873 set off a depression that lasted six years  The longest and most severe that Americans had yet suffered  Thousands of businesses went bankrupt, people lost jobs  Greenbacks became the chief circulating medium  a U.S. legal­tender note, printed in green on the back since the  Civil War, originally issued against the credit of the country  The Compromise of 1877 o Was the compromise between Republicans and southern Democrats that ended  Radical Reconstruction o Republicans promised that if Hayes were elected, he would withdraw the last  federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina, letting the Republican  governments there collapse.   o The Democrats promised to withdraw their opposition to Hayes, accept in good  faith the Reconstruction amendments, and refrain from partisan reprisals against  Republicans in the South  The End of Reconstruction o In 1877, President Hayes withdrew federal governments from Louisiana and  South Carolina. o Over the next three decades the protection of black civil rights crumbled  o Radical Reconstruction never offered a commitment to black civil rights and  th th th social equality, but it left and enduring legacy: 13 , 14 , and 15  Amendments.  It created future advances Page 606­612: The South and the West Transformed  After the Civil War, the South and the West provided enticing opportunities for American inventiveness and entrepreneurship.    The Myth of The New South o The New South “presents a perfect democracy” of small farms and diversifying  industries.  This was only Henry W. Grady’s vision  o The New South vision of a more diversified economy made a lot of sense, but it  was only partially fulfilled o The chief accomplishment of the New south movement was a dramatic expansion  of the region’s textile industry    From 1880­1890, the number of cotton mills in the South grew from 161  to 400 o Tobacco growing and cigarette production also increased significantly  James B. Duke ­The America Tobacco Company o Coal production in the South grew from 5 million tons in 1875 to 49 million tons  by 1900 o The South in 1900 remained the least urban, industrial, educated, and prosperous  region.   o A prolonged deflation in crop prices affected the entire economy during the last  third of the nineteenth century, which made it more difficult to own land o Sharecropper­ those who have nothing to offer the landowner but their labor  They worked the owner’s land in return for seed, fertilizer, and supplies  and a share of the crop  The sharecropper­tenant system was inefficient and corrupting Brown and Shannon Page 54­77: Reading the 1894 Pullman Strike  The Pullman labor strike (May 11,1894)  tied up rail lines from Lake Michigan to the  Pacific Ocean  July 5, 1894­ Federal troops marched into Chicago to break the strike at its center o Harding witnessed the uprising of thousands of unemployed workers  He saw twenty railcars overturned, gangs of boys destroying a railway  switching mechanism, and watched the smoke billow up from railcars set  afire  The Pullman strike begun eight weeks earlier, in May 1894, as a peaceful labor protest  against a single Chicago employer.   Long before the strike, the Pullman Palace Car Company and its president, George  Pullman, were famous.    The World’s Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate industrial  progress in the USA, stimulated full employment and high wages in Pullman town o But the NY stock market crash led to the bankruptcy of 16 thousand businesses  o The depression of 1894 was the worst the USA had ever suffered economically  In the town of Pullman, the 1894 depression caused layoffs, wage cuts, and increased  resentment over the company’s housing policies  One side­ General Managers’ Association (GMA) , which represented the twenty­four  railroads with terminals in Chicago (George Pullman)  Other side­ ARU, a brand­new , national, “industrial” union in which skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled railroad workers joined together in one industry­wide association o Railroad owners feared the potential power of the ARU o Led by Eugene V. Debs  During the first week of the showdown, nearly 100,000 railway workers refused to  handle Pullman cars, and the GMA’s railway companies refused to run trains without  Pullman cars o Which caused delays and disruptions  During the second week, control of events shifted from the railway workers to the federal government.  The injunctions and the appearance of troops in various cities sparked the strikes first  violence, including street protests, attacks on railway property, fires in rail yards, and  violent confrontations.    The chaos resulting from the boycott lasted from June 26 to July 10, but those two weeks  brought a bloody end to the ARU’s national effort and to the local Pullman strike. o Eugene V. Debs was arrested. He was charged with violating the court injunction, and was eventually sentenced to six months in prison  The U.S. Strike Commission’s recommendations were that unions be legitimized by  government policy and the government set up a system for labor in order to avoid strikes  in the future  The advantages of newspapers providing details, reflecting the immediate climate, and  appealing to a particular readership are the very reason we must also be cautious in using  the information we find in newspapers. o Disadvantages include: reporters are on a deadline which could lead to wrong or  incomplete facts and/or the editorial being biased.    Factual Claims­ statements of names, dates, and evens that you could verify by  consulting others sources  Editorial bias becomes apparent in the newspaper’s choice of words or omission of some  information and its emphasis on other information  The Pullman strike and the report that emanated from it marked a significant shift in  public support for government as a strike mediator, not a strike breaker.


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