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Geology 1400

by: Ashley Albers

Geology 1400 GEOL 1400

Ashley Albers
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

the first chapter notes
Natural Disasters
Dr. Mian Liu
Class Notes
Geology, natural disasters
25 ?




Popular in Natural Disasters

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Albers on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1400 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Mian Liu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Natural Disasters & population About 150 major natural disasters affected millions of people worldwide in 2015. Asia again bore the brunt of these disasters reported globally  Massive earthquake devastates Nepal: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on April 25 killing more than 8,800 people, damaged or destroyed nearly  Food of a century soaks Chennai, India  Heat wave hits southern India  Typhoon Komen, monsoon rains inundate Myanmar, Bangladesh, India  Malawi and Mozambique reel from massive floods  Drought worsens food security for millions in Ethiopia Natural Disasters in 2011  Nearly 29,00 people killed by natural disasters in 2011 o Japan tsunami (way bigger than Haiti earthquake)  This was far fewer deaths than in 2010  2010 Haiti earthquake killed approximately 230,000 people and Russian heat wave killed about 56,000 people Natural Disasters in 2004-05  more than 280,000 people killed natural disasters in 2004, almost 100,00 in 205  2005 Pakistan earthquake: 88,000 people killed o 3.3 million left homeless o 2 ndwave of deaths from winter storm  2005 Hurricane Katrina o 2004 Hurricane Ivan was a close miss o 2005 Hurricane Katrina was direct hit on Mississippi, engulfed much on Gulf Coast o Failure of Mississippi river and lake Natural disaster: “a natural event such as a flood, earthquake, or hurricane that causes great damage or loss of life.” Human Fatalities in Natural Disasters  Biggest killers (in order): 1. Hurricanes 2. Earthquakes 3. Floods 4. Severe weather 5. Landslides 6. Volcanic eruptions 7. Tornadoes 8. Tsunami  Most mega-killer disasters occur in densely populated areas Hazard, risk, and disaster  Hazard: a natural process, inevitable o Earthquake, hurricane, nothing you can do about it  Risk: fatality and damage that may be caused by a natural process, can be reduced o The damage the natural disaster will cause that you can do something about  Disaster: well, a disaster! o A lot of death, a lot of damage Magnitude, Frequency, and return period  Inverse correlation between frequency (how often it occurs) and magnitude (how big it is) of a process o Small-scale activity is common, big events are rare o Larger the even, longer the return period (recurrence interval)  Probability estimates of carious size (10-fatality, 1000-fatality, etc.) occurrences can be considered  Cost-benefit ratio should be considered in conjunction with return period of given magnitude event  You have to consider the magnitude and time/recurrence interval Economic losses from natural disasters  Destruction and damage to structures, loss of productivity and wages  Increase in economic losses over time I s result of increase in human population and urbanization  Most expensive events caused by storms and occurred in U.S., Europe, and Japan The last 10,000 years of Human history  By 1750 population ~800 million people o 1810: ~1 Billion o 1925: ~2 Billion o 1960: ~3 Billion o 1974: ~4 Billion o 1987: ~5 Billion o 1999: ~6 Billion o 2011: ~7 Billion  Flat population growth curve until 8,000 years ago o Agriculture established o Domestication of animals  By 2,000 years ago population ~ 200 million people The human Population Today  Present population: (over 7 billion) o Growth rate= 1.2%/year o Doubling time =58 years (Growth rate= fertility rate – mortality rate)  Human populations grows by about 80 million people per year (roughly the population of Germany) With the growth of population and infrastructure increases the risk of disaster when it comes to natural disasters Natural Hazards  Hazard exists even where disasters are infrequent  Evaluate site risk  Mitigation prior to event o Engineering, physical, social and political plans and actions to reduce death and destruction from natural hazards  Mitigation after event o Rebuilding and re-inhabiting same site o Case history: Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico  Eruptions in 822, 1519 and beginning again in 1994  Currently 100,000 people living at base Carrying Capacity  Example of Ireland in the 1840s o Introduction of potatoes in 1500s led to population increase o Potato blight in mid 1940s led to malnourishment o Population fell dramatically as over one million people dies and one and a half million people emigrated  Example of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) o Isolated pacific island with poor soil an little water o Settled by 25-50 Polynesians in 5 century  Survived easily on chickens and yams, plenty of free time  Developed elaborate competition between moai (statues)  Cut down trees and make sculptures o Reached by a Dutch ship in 1722  Found 2,000 people living in caves  Primitive society, constant warfare o Rapa Nui’s drastically lowered by society’s actions:  Transportation of moai had required cutting down trees  Erosion of soil made yams scarce  Lack of canoes made fishing difficult and escape impossible


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