American Revolutions Week 1
American Revolutions Week 1 HIST 0848-002
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
January 12, 2016 Historians look at: Change Context Causality Complexity Contingency—Things never had to happen the way they did, there's always another way. A way something actually turned out might not always be the most predictable way. Primary Source: any original text, item or case we use to gain knowledge about the past. A primary sources in information that was created at the same time as an event by a person directly involved in the event. Examples of Primary Sources: Autobiography Eyewitness Newspaper Journal Letters Videos Photographs Secondary Source: information from somewhere else, or by a person not directly involved in the event. Academic texts are secondary sources, which base their conclusions on primary sources. Examples of Secondary Sources: Compilation of accounts Documentary Academic journal Study Biography Video (depending on when they were created) Important Questions: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? January 14, 2016 Aspects of an academic history paper o Introduction/thesis o Main body/argument About three points to prove your thesis One idea per paragraph o (Small, on the shorter side) conclusion do not restate facts you have already presented. You can restate your thesis, but use the conclusion to draw conclusions based on all the information already presented. Restating is redundant, instead, use the space to connect your information. Thesis or not? o Why do you need one? Effective academic writing demands a single thesis, as well as an argument proving that thesis in a manageable number of logical steps. o An argument is a discourse intended to persuade, and a thesis gives direction to that discourse Components of a thesis o A single declarative sentence with an active verb and a single predication o An argument in a statement, that needs to be supported with evidence o Your paper is ruthlessly subordinated to proving this thesis. o A thesis is not: vague, an outline, a truism (your thesis needs to be proven, it should not be a simple statement of fact), a statement of known facts, or in any way disconnected from the rest of the paper o A thesis is decisive. It gives direction and meaning to information. It transforms disconnected ideas into a connected argument. What is a thesis? o You might begin your paper with a brief explanation of a controversy; you might introduce your argument by first outlining the subject’s traditional interpretation; or you might start with a question. By the time the reader has finished the first paragraph, she should know how you resolve the controversy, revise the traditional interpretation, or answer the question. Your resolution/revision/answer is your thesis. Following the first paragraph, you prove your thesis. o A thesis is not a principle. It is a debatable assertion, the validity of which must be supported by evidence. Research Requirements o Use one source beyond our required readings o The source can be either primary or secondary Finding sources o History reference librarian, Rebecca Lloyd. o “Summon”, or any other database. Formatting o Papers turned in by email, as a Microsoft word document o Times new roman font size 12 o Double spacing, one inch margins o Three pages (excluding title, name, footnotes, so the writing must actually be three pages) o Check the Chicago Manual of Style for citations o Footnotes, not intext citations In Microsoft word: “refrences”, then “insert footnote” (also ALT+CTRL+F) Journals or book chapters Page numbers Complete info of work containing the source Websites (as much information as possible) Author Name Date Institution published by Precise URL Date accessed Full citation on first mention Second mention and on: abbreviated version Author, title, and page number o Paper is set up: Thesis Argument Point A sources (several) Point B, etc. sources (several) When in doubt, cite. January 19, 2016 Essential questions of the course: o Who is included in US society? o What does this inclusion mean? o What are mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion o Who are the gatekeepers of US society? To help take notes: o How does U.S. society change before 1929? o What caused the Great Depression? 19 Century U.S. Government Politics at the national level were shaped by indirect means o Law o Trade Policy o Fiscal Status Subsidies supported by indirect taxes Partnerships with nongovernmental partners Preponderance of local and state powers The US government was laissez fair (“let it be” or “Let them work”) federally, the government was more like a ‘night watchman’ rather than actively and directly creating policy and impacting citizens indirect government Lots of local and state powers, however the U.S. government is involved when it comes to wars Common American Society: household agriculture—family farms o The older you are the more power you have o The more goods you own the more power you have o Families produce for their own needs, they may sell locally but they don’t grow in order to profit from the crop’s sales. o Kids get the farm when the parents die (Families have many children), but usually there isn’t enough land to go around between all the kids. Younger kids will usually go west for more land. This to keeps the system going. th Industrialization—starts in the new England states in the first part of the 19 century o Factories o Transportation, railroads o Corporations—by and especially after the civil war, corporatization starts. Instead of family businesses, making a corporation allows you to invest more money and pursue riskier ventures because if the company fails you are not personally fiscally responsible. Good tax, (etc.) benefits in the US. o Urbanization. These new city populations need food. This leads to... o …commercial agriculture. Household farming becomes obsolete. o By 1900s there are many more wage laborers and urban dwellers o 1790 5% urban, 95% rural o 1850 20% urban, 80% rural o 1900 40% urban, 60% rural New Middle Class o 1870: o white collar workers 374,433 o managers 121,000 o teachers 128,000 1900 o white collar workers 3,200,000 o Managers 893,000 o Teachers 614,900 Middle class values: o Moderation: this encouraged practicing moderation in leisure habits, food consumption (vegetarianism, healthier ways of eating and living), and more. o Family life—“cult of domesticity”. Mother is the center of the home; she is unemployed and raises the children with affection and love at the forefront. o Religion—especially protestant, many religious revivals in the United States at this time. o Reform movement—all of these things cause a middle class reform movement. There is also a focus on improving the lives of those who are less privileged—the middle class wants to pass on their own culture. Immigration o 18701920 o Huge labor vacuum in U.S. o Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe came to work, and found horizontal job opportunities at the bottom of society (you cant necessarily move up the ladder, but if you’re unhappy at your job, you can go find another of the same status and level fairly easily) o Large horizontal job opportunities at bottom of society o African Americans were the victims of racism in both the north and south, but the north was less institutionalized (segregation, racist laws). o The US is not a haven of tolerism. There is antiSemitism, however, it is not built into law like it was in eastern Europe. Progressivism o Middle class movement o National, transnational organization o Urban movement pushing for social justice, education and legal reform, government streamlining, etc. National and state level o 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act o 1910 White Slave Traffic Act (Mann Act), to restrict prostitution o (On the state level) Wisconsin: governor Robert La Follette More equitable taxes Regulation of railroads Local activism o Active in prison reform o Abstinence o Settlement houses—these were envisioned as a place where people could learn from one another and mitigate the problems of modern society through art, education, etc. they provide services like daycare, libraries, employment offices, etc. o Hull House is the most famous, in Chicago. Immigrant women could go there, have their children taken care of, while they get an education, are introduced to the idea that women are to be homemakers, raise children with affection, and other American societal norms, etc.. World War One o Breaks out in 1914, creates a huge demand for products. The U.S. sells goods to European countries, and this leads to these countries owing the US lots of money. In this way the U.S. becomes a creditor nation o U.S. gets involved in WWI— The U.S. doesn’t have a lot of centralized government, so it doesn’t have a large army or navy and can’t effectively protect their shipping ships. Great Britain and Germany are the naval powers, and they constantly try to block shipments going to each other. The Germans have submarines, so they surprise attack ships going to Britain. The most famous is the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, where over 1,000 passengers drown. o From 191517 they stop, but after being attacked from both sides and being weakened, they stop cooperating and reinstate their attacks. o The US gets involved (for economic reasons and to protect international laws) o The US has always been very strong in foreign policy, and now the president tries to bring their middle class values to the world Wilsonian Internationalism o Concept: U.S. society is morally superior to all other societies By exporting it to the world, could create a “world safe for democracy” Idea: what is best for the US is best for everyone Wilson’s 14 Points: o i. Open diplomacy o ii. Freedom of the seas o iii. Open marketplaces o iv. Reduction of armaments (militaries, weaponry) o This forms the League of Nations The Treaty of Versailles lays out the terms of Germany’s surrender and lays the foundation for post WWI Europe US society turns inward—they recognize that the Europeans don’t want to change to the American way so “why bother?”. 1920’s o U.S. society turns inward Immigration Act of 1924: aimed to restrict immigration even more than the preceding Immigration Act of 1921, mostly aimed at Southern and Eastern Europeans, and completely banned the immigration of Asians. Urbanization, industrialization continue o Beginning of modern US Major novelties of the 1920’s o Courting habits: “dating” introduced o Scopes trial: This spurred a real debate over the concept of and teaching of evolution in schools. Many religious leaders saw evolution as contrary to religious teaching. Scopes decided to purposely teach evolution so that he would be targeted with a court case, and evolution debated. He was represented by lawyer William Jennings Bryan. Scopes is convicted after 9 minutes of deliberation. Christianity is split between fundamentalists and those who are willing to integrate evolution into their worldviews. o Automobile: causes the introduction of the suburbs (people can now live outside the city and commute in). Automobiles are created through mass production on an assembly line, which makes them affordable. By 1929 one in five Americans has their own car. The first suburbs start showing up. The Great Depression o Supply rises above demand o Stock market investment Often on borrowed credit o October 29, 1929: stock market crashes, on “Black Tuesday”. Stock Market Crashes o Runs on banks: people panic and demand their savings be given to them. The banks obviously don’t have everyone’s money immediately, so they crash as well. Social Ramifications o 25% unemployment o Over one million men travel to find work o Marriages and family planning delayed o The poorest members of society are hit hardest. African Americans face unemployment up to 3060% higher than whites, and women are discriminated against. Government Failure o Attempts to boost economy by limited intervention Giving tax incentives for companies Regulating tariffs Seeking voluntary pledges from businesses and associations for help. o Traditional methods of U.S. government fail. Questions— o How did the US society change before and after 1929? The shift from family farms to wage workers in cities Middle class society created During the depression, gender roles were “postponed”, as they were just trying to survive and didn’t have marriage and homemaking at the forefront of their minds. Men were still breadwinners, while women are working more but are still pushed to marry for moral reasons. The Depression shakes up the way American society works. o What caused the great depression? Overproduction Post WWI booming economy Stock Market Crash Bank failures January 21, 2016 New Deal and World War II Recap: Stock market crash 1929 25% unemployment Millions travel to seek employment Federal governments indirect movements don’t help the situation Franklin Delano Roosevelt (President 19331945) Election of 1932, a “sea change” election (an election that majorly changes the way people think about politics) FDR is elected over the incumbent, Herbert Hoover FDR hides his disability from the public (his legs were paralyzed after contracting polio as a child) Statements Post Election— focused on lowering unemployment, creating jobs, expanding the federal government, regulating capitalism (as unregulated capitalism caused the crash), and dealing with monopolies all through government regulation. He “declares war” on the crisis, justifying the government’s involvement (as they’ve not been shy of war in the past). The New Deal (These are a sort of “trial and error” series of events, policies, and laws. Some laws are even contradictory, but they need to see what works.) Legislation: regulates various aspects of the US economy o Agricultural Adjustment Act: These address the overproduction pre crash. They create voluntary codes that farms can adhere to. Farms are given subsidies if they use less resources, create less product, and use less land. They are given a “blue star” if they follow the regulations, and the public is encouraged only to buy products with the blue star. o National Industrial Removal Act: regulates and increases prices to combat deflation. Legislation: stabilizing banks and the stock market o Emergency Banking Act All banks closed for several days while the federal government audited them, only those fiscally sound were allowed to reopen. This increased trust in banks again. o Securities Act: Mandates honesty in financial statements and ban misrepresentation and fraud o Securities Exchange Act Creates a securities exchange commission, which oversees the stock market and all deals within it o Legislation: regulating deflation and inflation Economy act Deflationary measure Gold reserve act Gov’t buys up gold, trying to increase the value of money—inflationary measure These are contradictory measures! As previously stated, some measures are contradictory because of the “guessing game” nature of the recovery period. o Major programs Direct relief Civilian Conservation Corps Provides work for unmarried unemployed men, for conservation of natural land and research Tennessee Valley Authority Develop rural areas in the attempt to connect them to the rest of U.S. Public Works Administration: Build facilities and infrastructure, in this way providing jobs and rebuilding lacking areas of the country Works Progress Administration Largest and best known project funded. Provides jobs everywhere, by building infrastructure, and funds cultural programs. Infusion of money and confidence into U.S. society. Later Legislation: These are more indirect ways to tackle the effects of the crash, minimized control of corporations. National Labor Relations Act: legalizes unions Social Security Act: Old age and medical benefits for Americans. Recession and setbacks: 1936/37 Small recession in these years Administration is concerned with protecting these instated programs from future change by congress. o African Americans and the New Deal o African Americans are still at the bottom of the social hierarchy— there is still discrimination, although African American’s supported Roosevelt politically, as their lives were still improved. Local discrimination when implementing national programs One third of African American households has Works Progress Administration jobs “New Deal Coalition”—a powerful voter coalition, made up of laborers, union members, African Americans, etc. Voting habits changed—the people benefiting from these programs are now voting more, and voting democrat. Many of those who used to vote republican now vote democrat. Unemployment still at 19% until World War II After WWI Changes in Europe o 1917: Russian Revolution Russian monarch is overthrown Bolshevik victory (communists) o Marxist Communism Ultimate goal: society structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absences of social classes money and the state. The state plans the economy, by planning the production of every farm, factory, etc. and how much everyone needs to consume. Presumes constant fight between working and capitalist classes —they (communist theorists) say this should happen all the time until the ‘utopia’ is realized Prioritizes collective rights—property of the state rather than of individuals This works towards a utopia. The Russians change their name to the Soviet Union o By the 1930s, there is a second new form of government growing in Germany and Italy o 1933—National Socialist Party (Nazis) come to power in Germany o Fascism Populist ultranationalism, tracing back to a mythical past (In Germany, there is a cult of Aryanism, so “Celtic White Warriors”, and the way they conduct ceremonies is Pagan, and the swastika is an old Celtic symbol. Oftentimes this ‘mythical past’ is connected to romans, etc., for other societies) Regulated economic structure Hierarchical organization Culture of modernity, youth, masculinity, mass mobilization Not conservative, but ‘transformative’: they will “keep expanding, because they are the future” (they believe). Rampant antiSemitism The Road to World War II (Asia) o Early 1930’s: Japan escapes colonization by western powers by building up its industry. It’s the only country in east Asia that is acting under its own political sovereignty Japan expands influence into China (Manchuria) 1937 Japan invades China, beginning of World War II in the Pacific. Italy and Germany are expanding o Germany expands its borders, Italy in Africa o 1936: Germany reclaims the Rhineland o 1938: Annexation of Austria o 1938: Annexation of the German speaking regions of Czechoslovakia o 1938: Munich conference, in which Hitler promises not to expand anymore if GB and France will accept the territorial gains he has made so far. Appeasement Policy: appeasing Hitler by agreeing to his demands and hoping he wont move further. o March 1939: annexation of Czechoslovakia o August 1939: SovietGerman Nonaggression Pact (HitlerStalin pact) Secret addendum carving up eastern Europe o September 1, 1939: Invasion of Poland—this is how WWI starts in Europe, as France and GB declare war Early WWII o 1940/1 Germany and allies Italy and Japan have spectacular successes Overrun much of Europe and southeast Asia By 1942, Germany starts its mass genocide of Jews, homosexuals, the disabled, gypsies, etc. Road to WWII (US) Roosevelt makes slow and small steps toward war, in order to get passed congress and the American people without attention, panic, or obstruction. o 1938: US air force buildup o 39: US arrogates its trade treaties with Japan o 1940 FDR permits the sale of surplus military equipment to Great Britain and France o Sept. 1940: selective training and service act, first peacetime military draft in US history o Sept 1940: embargo of oil and metal to japan (huge blow—Japan has no domestic oil reserves, so they begin to try to remove the embargo. FDR refuses and they interpret it as an unfriendly gesture). o March 1941: LendLease Act—Great Britain (and France) can’t pay for the military goods from the U.S., so now the U.S. will lend them. The U.S. will now get them back after the war, and Great Britain doesn’t have to worry about the cash to pay them o Aug. 41: Atlantic Charter—calls for disarmament, (etc.) self determination (people can decide where they want to live), and for international institutions that will set boundaries for states to follow. States should be regulated by international, large institutions. o Fall 41: US Japanese diplomatic negotiations o December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor attack o The next day, FDR asks congress to declare war on Japan, and in turn their allies Germany and Italy. The Pacific The Soviets are now working with the U.S. and Great Britain, but the U.S. is not ready to go to war (they need to shift to a war industry). o 1942: Battle of Midway—U.S. wins and it stops a Japanese advance across the Pacific Ocean o Island Hopping—the war is fought in a series of battles involving Japanese trying to hold islands and the U.S. trying to take them Europe: Fighting alongside GB, Soviet Union. The Three Leaders o Joseph Stalin: secretary of the communist party, rules the Soviet Union o FDR o Winston Churchill: His plan involves cutting off Italy from its invasion of Africa, and Germany from any naval shipments of resources they might be getting, while they wait for the US to get ready for the offensive. The Soviet Union will keep harassing Germany from the East, where the heaviest fighting of WWII happens. o They all have different ideas on how the war should be fought, but Churchill’s view wins. o The U.S. and Great Britain invade north Africa in 1943, and prepare for the DDay attack. o Allies strangle Germany and Italy, and on May 8, 1945, Germany surrenders. o Japan surrenders in august 1945 (this connects to the atomic bomb and beginning of the cold war) U.S. as an “arsenal of democracy” War production requires millions of workers o Unemployment sinks o Women workers take jobs o Still discriminatory issues, so the African Americans plan a march on Washington. FDR doesn’t want this to occur and hurt war morale, so he creates the Fair employment Practices Committee. New companybased support in jobs: health care. Companies now have to compete for workers because the demand for product is so high, so they give higher pay, childcare, subsidized housing, health care, etc. Life during WWII o Many consumer goods are rationed or unavailable o New highs in personal income o New opportunities lead to massive migration; people move to seek better jobs in the war industries. o Families are broken up, men are fighting while women work o Racial tensions in urban areas o Double V campaign: African Americans compare racism of Fascism and Nazis to segregation at home o JapaneseAmerican internment—Roosevelt forces Japanese Americans to sell their homes (at low prices) and move into camps. Many are deeply ambivalent because those of German and Italian descent don’t face this discrimination. American Culture o Expectations of better lives, as well as consumer goods after the war o “Culture of sacrifice” o Protecting U.S. values Nationalism Democracy Capitalism Family o Propaganda: apparatus of peacetime advertising and entertainment o Hollywood: federal government carried out an intensive, unprecedented effort to mold the content of Hollywood feature films. Women support the men in portrayals, but really they’re working, etc. This creates a tension. Overarching Questions: o How effective was the New Deal? Make a case for or against it. Effective: it created jobs, even if there was discrimination. It drastically shifted voting demographics in the country. It changed how involved government was in people’s lives, increased industrialization in rural areas, and stabilized the stock market. o How did events in the late 1930’s and early 40’s change the U.S.? Women were working more and had more opportunities than they did in the 20’s, they took over the men’s jobs when they were at war, and helped the war effort. Women now had access to high paying jobs. o What facets of American society and politics did the U.S. federal government seek to protect in World War II? The government tries to preserve Nationalism and democracy, they want to shape a way of life, they want to preserve U.S. economic interests in European endeavors. They wanted to protect but also enhance the idea of the US as a war power. The government controlled U.S. society in this time. FDR pushed things, the government shaped things. Before, there were corporations, immigration, etc., which shaped what was American. Now, the Government pushes what makes America American. The New deal and the great depression are basically describing the same time. What’s the difference? o The new deal is much more positive than the great depression. Not only does it create more jobs, but it strengthens the infrastructure and improves the country in physical ways. o It reinforces the idea that America can overcome, and it’s a place where anything can happen. o They refer to the same time period, but using one over the other changes what you’re talking about (new jobs, social change, etc., vs. stock market change, immigration, etc.) o The way you talk about this time, and what words you use, changes the topics drastically. Using terms is a direct way of clarifying your connotations.
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