Popular in Modern East Asia
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Smith on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAS 270 at a university taught by Fabio Lanza in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
The “Sinic World” by Joshua A. Fogel 1. Is “Asia” a thing? a. It does exist as a concept however there are different variations. 2. Buddhism a. Buddhism is different in India and China i. Judaism and Christianity b. “Asia Minor” i. Immune to any form of Buddhist influence 3. Sinic World a. Falls under Chinese cultural influence. b. Examples i. China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam ii. Sometimes kingdoms and tribal federations in Inner Asia c. Culturally Conceived China-centered universe i. Support in major constituent nations of the region ii. Unifying belief systems, religions, languages, and administrative structures d. Chinese language (3,000 years ago) i. Clearest and oldest demonstration 1. Unity of East Asia or the sinic world ii. China’s periphery 1. Find the need for written languages of their own 2. Gravitated towards the adoption of Chinese iii. Not all spoken languages of the region was the same 1. Latinate languages in Europe 4. Japanese and Korean are close but distant from Chinese a. Korean i. Hasn’t developed an alphabet (hangul) separate of Chinese th and Japanese until the 15 century. b. Japanese i. Developed syllabary alphabet (kana) in the 19 century c. Vietnamese i. Created a native writing system (nom) based on Chinese 1. Interspersing spoken elements into Chinese texts ii. Romanized by French missionaries in the 17 century. 5. Cultural elite in China’s neighbors a. Continue to use literary Chinese i. Medium of discourse ii. Internal bureaucratic communication iii. Literary composition in the early years of the 12 century 6. Confucianism a. System of intellectual and social thought i. Developed in ancient China ii. Rooted in the traditions of the mainland b. Commentaries and subcommentaries on Confucian classical texts i. Written into literary Chinese c. Property of all East Asians 7. Why did non-Chinese East Asians adopt cultural Chinese ways? a. Attraction of Chinese institutions and the Chinese language i. Result of the genuine utility for modernization ii. No other choice 8. What was the Chinese Model? a. Taught that well-ordered states require certain cultural and institutional trappings b. Confucian Ideas i. Importance of specific family and political personal relationships ii. National university system iii. Examination system iv. Unified Currency v. Well-administrative land distribution/taxation system c. Before it was adopted by Japan, Korea and Vietnam, development for centuries in China i. Got well-tested institutions but weren’t modified for their societies and political establishments 9. National University a. Dates to the former Han Dynasty b. Han Dynasty i. First long-lived regime to rule over a unified China ii. Tied into an examination system 1. Selected best scholars for advanced study and bureaucratic appointment c. Tang Dynasty i. Widespread impact on Korea, Japan and Vietnam ii. Developed an elaborate National University iii. Dominated by China’s distinctive aristocratic families iv. Middle Years 1. China’s ruling aristocratic structure in decline d. Song Era i. Complete developments 1. China’s aristocracy as gone 2. Basis for taking and passing every level of the examinations a. Merit and merit alone 10. How did the examination system and the university it supported fare in other East Asian societies? a. Korean state of Silla i. Established a National University in the 8 century 1. Based on the Tang model b. Korean aristocracy (yangban) i. Dissolved under the Japanese Occupation authorities c. Yi Dynasty i. Produced an elaborate examination system 1. A member of the aristocracy 11. Japan a. National University and Civil Examination Systems i. Developed in the Nara and early Heian periods ii. Did move to change radically the nature of their system. iii. Died out over time 1. Hierarchical nature of Japanese society 12. Vietnam a. Firm commitment by every short or long term regime establishing an examination and national university system. b. Tran Dynasty i. Examinations of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. ii. Examinations strictly Confucianism iii. Nguyen family th 1. Southern part of 17 century Vietnam 2. Much more practical oriented examination system a. Aimed at training men i. Administrative affairs ii. Taxation matters th iii. Ceremonial concerns 13. 20 Century China a. At the mercy of the imperialist powers of the West b. Sent to Japan learning different forms of their culture c. Japan learned the owed strength they gained from the Chinese d. Qing Dynasty i. Based on the development of a Chinese national phonetic alphabet and Japanese kana e. Wars i. China fought 15 year war with Japan ii. Invaded Vietnam iii. Fought the US in Korea 14. Interaction with different cultures, peoples and countries a. China saw themselves as civilized b. Tang Dynasty i. Foreigners from Asia came to trade, proselytize, study and settle in China ii. Japanese and Koreans studied and passed the Chinese civil service examinations. iii. Religious systems prospered 1. Zoroastrianism 2. Nestorian Christianity 3. Sects of Buddhism c. Japan converts to Christianity i. Seen as a threat backed by the Portuguese ii. Political forces the shogun wouldn’t contend with 15. Jesuit-Chinese interaction a. Matteo Ricci i. Respect for the host country b. Learned Chinese well c. Spent a long time in China d. Earned admiration of their elite Chinese acquaintances e. Converted some Chinese
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