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BIOLOGY 150: Week 1

by: Katharyn Taylor

BIOLOGY 150: Week 1 Biol 150

Katharyn Taylor
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These notes cover the basics of DNA and alternative splicing. Included are several critical thinking examples from class.
Organismal and Ecological Biology
Dr. Benjamin Keck
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
BIOLOGY  150  –  JANUARY  21   •   “Nothing  in  Biology  makes  sense  except  in  the  light  of  evolution ”   o   Genetics  reveal  the  evolutionary  process   •   DNA  –  is  a  double  helix,  which  means  its  made  of  two  ‘swirling’  strands.   These  strands  are  made  of  pieces  called  nucleotides,  which  are  made  of   a  phosphate/sugar  backbone  linked  to  a  nitrogenous  base   •   TRANSCRIPTION  –  the  production  of  a  strand  of  RNA  that  corresponds   with  the  DNA  template  strand  (basically,  making  a  ‘working  copy’  of  the   DNA  out  of  RNA)   •   TRANSLATION  –  the  production  of  proteins  through  the  use  of  ribosomes   that  read  the  RNA  sequence  and  match  it  up  with  the  correct  pieces  of   tRNA  to  build  a  protein  (building  these  proteins  is  the  whole  reason  for   copying  the  DNA  in  the  first  place)   •   GENE  REGULATION  –  this  is  the  way  genes  are  transcribed  different   amounts  and  at  different  times  depending  on  what  they  code  for.  Genes   are  regulated  using  the  following:   o   PROMOTERS  –  the  region  of  DNA  that  says  “Hey!  Bind  to  me  if   you  want  to  start  coding  for  ____!”   o   ALTERNATIVE  SPLICING  –  the  cutting,  putting  in  order,  and   attaching  of  EXONS,  which  are  the  sections  of  the  DNA  that  are   useful  for  making  that  particular  protein.  This  allows  the  same   section  of  DNA  to  code  for  many  different  proteins,  making  the   very  best  use  of  compact  genomes  that  belong  to  very   complicated  organisms           •   So,  who  has  the  larger  genome?  Jimmy  Cheek  or  a  butterfly?   o   The  answer  is  Jimmy  Cheek.  People  have  about  3000   megabases,  while  butterflies  only  have  about  273  megabases.   But  both  of  these  organisms  use  gene  regulation  tactics  to  make   efficient  use  of  their  DNA.  Because  of  this,  each  coding  gene   accounts  for  not  just  one  protein,  but  many.   •   So,  is  an  organism  that  has  100  protein  coding  genes  less  complex  than   one  with  10,000?   o   Not  necessarily.  With  gene  splicing,  the  organism  with  fewer   coding  genes  could  still  be  very  capable  of  creating  just  as  many   different  and  complicated  proteins  as  the  organism  with  more   coding  genes  can.         ______________________________________________________________   Thanks  so  much  for  looking  at  these  notes!  I  hope  they  were  helpful!  If  you   like  them,  feel  free  to  let  me  know,  or  if  you  have  questions  or  suggestions,  I   would  love  to  have  your  feedback!  See  y’all  in  Biology!   2  


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