BIOLOGY 150: Week 1
BIOLOGY 150: Week 1 Biol 150
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
BIOLOGY 150 – JANUARY 21 • “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution ” o Genetics reveal the evolutionary process • DNA – is a double helix, which means its made of two ‘swirling’ strands. These strands are made of pieces called nucleotides, which are made of a phosphate/sugar backbone linked to a nitrogenous base • TRANSCRIPTION – the production of a strand of RNA that corresponds with the DNA template strand (basically, making a ‘working copy’ of the DNA out of RNA) • TRANSLATION – the production of proteins through the use of ribosomes that read the RNA sequence and match it up with the correct pieces of tRNA to build a protein (building these proteins is the whole reason for copying the DNA in the first place) • GENE REGULATION – this is the way genes are transcribed different amounts and at different times depending on what they code for. Genes are regulated using the following: o PROMOTERS – the region of DNA that says “Hey! Bind to me if you want to start coding for ____!” o ALTERNATIVE SPLICING – the cutting, putting in order, and attaching of EXONS, which are the sections of the DNA that are useful for making that particular protein. This allows the same section of DNA to code for many different proteins, making the very best use of compact genomes that belong to very complicated organisms • So, who has the larger genome? Jimmy Cheek or a butterfly? o The answer is Jimmy Cheek. People have about 3000 megabases, while butterflies only have about 273 megabases. But both of these organisms use gene regulation tactics to make efficient use of their DNA. Because of this, each coding gene accounts for not just one protein, but many. • So, is an organism that has 100 protein coding genes less complex than one with 10,000? o Not necessarily. With gene splicing, the organism with fewer coding genes could still be very capable of creating just as many different and complicated proteins as the organism with more coding genes can. ______________________________________________________________ Thanks so much for looking at these notes! I hope they were helpful! If you like them, feel free to let me know, or if you have questions or suggestions, I would love to have your feedback! See y’all in Biology! 2