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Week 1 Notes

by: Taryn Syler

Week 1 Notes BMS 300

Taryn Syler
GPA 3.23
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I have converted my notes to a pdf format which is required for these uploads. This covers the first 2 days of class. I will post another pdf with the updated version tomorrow after I have gotten t...
Principles of Human Physiology
John Walrond
Class Notes
Principles of Human Physiology




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn Syler on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 300 at Colorado State University taught by John Walrond in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
WELCOME TO BMS 300! *Please note that all notes were taken from a lecture by John Walrond OBJECTIVES (Day 1) Water 1.Components 2.Structure 3.Covalent Bonds 4.Structure as liquid a. Role of hydrogen bonds Insolubility 1.Role of charge a. Anions and cations b.Role of dipole moments c. Shell of hydration i. Concept of hydrophilic Diffusion 1.Random walk of ions in water 2.Random walk of ions across a membrane Water H 2 - O H + H + *The blue lines in this diagram represent covalent bonds. 1. There is a dipole moment between the positively and negatively charged parts of this molecule. Dipole moments go from the positive side to the negative side. They are measured using vectors. 2. Hydrogen’s electrons spend most of their time on the oxygen atom in H O. 2 a. H 2 melts and freezes at 0° C i. Water is a liquid between these temperatures which allows life to occur, making water a solvent for charged atoms/ions (the most + + 2+ 2+ - - common of which include Na , K , C 2 , Mg (cations); Cl ,HCO 3 (anions). b. H O is a vapor/gas at 100° C 2 Hydrogen Bonding in H O 2 1. Hydrogen bonds exist between different molecules of water - O H+ H + O - + + H H *Here the blue lines represent covalent bonds again, but the black line represents a hydrogen bond between 2 water molecules. These lead to surface tension. Here we have a diagram that represents a graduated cylinder filled with water. The curved line is the meniscus that forms because the charges of the molecules in water interact with each other and molecules on the glass *When you pop a balloon full of water, it stays in that shape for a moment *Water striders, insects that walk on water, are able to do so because of surface tension Air is: 1. 79% N , 2oiling point= -196° C 2. 21% O , 2oiling point= -183° C a. The boiling points of these substances is far less than the boiling point of water, due to its structure Insolubility Shell of Hydration 1. If you put 5.84g of NaCl in a glass with 1L of H O,2the salt dissolves. Why? a. A shell of hydration forms around the ions that NaCl is composed of (Na + - and Cl ). The energy H O2contains in its liquid state allows NaCl to separate into the individual ions. These ions are hydrophilic, which means water loving. + - b. Na becomes surrounded by water molecules, but the O side is more drawn to the ion than the H side. (See the next page for an example of this) Na+ + - - + H O O H + + H H c. The same thing happens to the Cl ion. Only in this case, the H side is more drawn to it than the O side. H+ O- Cl- + H In each of these cases, water acts as a solvent. Objectives (Day 2) Insolubility and Diffusion 1.Charged ions a. From crystal to diffusion 2.Diffusion in the water column a. Reaching equilibrium 3.Diffusion across barriers a. Ion selective channels b.Reaching equilibrium 4.H O diffusion through aquaporins (H O specific 2 2 channels) a. Osmosis b.Reaching equilibrium Hydrophilic vs Hydrophobic 1.Lipids as hydrophobic molecules (due to lack of charge) a. Equal sharing of charge (electrons) Triglyceride Structure 1.Glycerol as a 3-carbon alcohol 2.Fatty acid structure a. Carboxylic acid structure 3.Dehydration synthesis a. Ester bond formation Phospholipids as Amphipathic Structures 1.Fatty acid tails 2.Phosphate head groups-charged *Phospholipids are the building blocks for biological membranes Insolubility and Diffusion 1. Again, we have a liter of water in a glass with 5.84g NaCl. Note that the molecular weight of NaCl is 58.44 g/mol, this means that we have a 0.1 M solution of NaCl in H2O. We can also say we have a 100 millimolar NaCl solution. a. H 2 is a liquid in this case, so the molecules are moving around (they have energy). This allows them to interact with NaCl which effectively splits them into the ions Na and Cl . b. As stated in the other day’s notes, the oxygen atom with a negative charge interacts with the Na ion and the hydrogen atom with a positive charge interacts with the Cl ion. c. The H2O dipoles surround Na and Cl and eventually equilibrium is reached. d. When NaCl is converted into Na and Cl they are dissolving into the water. The 100 millimolar solution of NaCl turns into a solution with 100 + - millimoles of Na and 100 millimoles of Cl . e. Ions diffuse in random directions in H O to2reach equilibrium i. Ions evenly distribute 2. In the case of diffusion across a barrier, you could have a container with a barrier right in the middle with NaCl on the left and H O on the right. Nothing will 2 happen. a. But if you put a barrier in between the two substances and it has little holes (channels), certain elements from each side are able to pass through. i. A chloride selective channel allows chloride ions to pass between each side of the container, for example. Na + - Cl H 2 Here we have an example of a channel. The blue lines on the orange line represent channels. These allow certain substances to pass, such as Na or Cl -. 1. Ions move from a high to low concentrations, in this case it would be left to right. 2. Overtime a solution that has 100 Na on one side and 0 Na on the other side will + go through diffusion if there is a barrier with Na channels. a. 100 Na | 0 Na + [becomes] 50 Na | 50 Na + i. This is called diffusion across barriers ii. Ions diffuse down a concentration gradient until they reach equilibrium b. The probability of the substance moving from left to right becomes equal to the probability that it will move from right to left. Osmosis 1. H O2diffusing down a concentration gradient (higher to lower concentration) + - a. If you have a container with water on the right side and Na and Cl on the left side, and you have a barrier with aquaporins (H O sp2cific channels), there is a higher concentration of H O on the right side than on the left side. 2 This means that it is more likely for the water to go from right to left. i. Note that if you had a beaker large enough so that the substances only rise so high, after a while, the water will transfer over to the left side so that hydrostatic pressure builds. Triglycerides as Hydrophobic Molecules 1. A common example of a triglyceride is vegetable oils such as olive oil. a. If you put olive oil in a container, then you add water, the water just sits on top of the olive oil. When you shake it, you see little bubbles of olive oil floating in the water. After a little while you see that the olive oil just sits on top of the water. i. This shows that olive oil is insoluble in water! ii. Olive oil is hydrophobic (meaning water fearing) 2. Triglyceride structure a. Glycerol (a 3-carbon alcohol) and a fatty acid i. Glycerol ii. Fatty Acid H O H H H H… Note that | || | | | | … fatty acid H-C-OH HO-C---C--C--C---C… carbon | | | | | | … chains can H-C-OH H H H H H… have 16, 18, | 20, or 22 H-C-OH carbon ions | H Here, the OH from the glycerol and the H from the fatty acid combine and form H 2O, this is called dehydration synthesis. *The example of a fatty acid above is unsaturated. If there was a double bond between 2 of the carbons in the carbon chain, this would be unsaturated. H H H | | | This is an example of a cis C C=C configuration. H H H | | | This an example of a trans C – C = C – C configuration. Note the placement | | | of the hydrogens around the double H H H bonded carbons. Trans configurations in fatty acids can result from heat. Trans fats are not good for you.


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