Biology 1101 Week 2 Notes
Biology 1101 Week 2 Notes BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100
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BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Kristin Smock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Biology 1101 Week 2 Notes Organic Molecules: • Organic molecules are compounds containing both carbon and hydrogen o The diversity of organic molecules is great. • Many are macromolecules o Macromolecules- large molecules that are in a structure of long chains o Usually made of of polymers- chains created by linking subunits called monomers Example: A train is made up of multiple train cars • A train car has individual components, but it is all one car (monomer) • The train that is made up of multiple cars is like a polymer Organic Molecules: • Four main types: o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Proteins o Nucleic Acids 1. Carbohydrates: • Simplest of the main organic molecules • Used as: o Energy source o Structural molecules • Consists of 2 main types: o Simple sugars (monomer) o Complex carbohydrates (polymer) • Primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen o Carbon-hydrogen bonds create energy and are easily broken down by organisms o Carbohydrates are the primary fuel source for cellular mechanisms. • Glucose is a simple sugar (monomer) o C6H12O 6 The 3 fates of glucose: 1. Release into energy 2. Link together to form glycogen (polymer) o Glycogen is how animals store carbs 3. Covert into fat Complex Carbohydrates: • Sucrose- disaccharides (two simple sugars linked together) • Starch- how plants store carbs o Potatoà reservoir of carbohydrates • Body works hard to separate polymers to get into monomers • When you eat simple sugars, your body is able to digest this faster, so you get a boost, then you crash o Example: Eating an orange • When you eat complex carbs, it’s a bunch of glucose molecules linked together, so the body has to work to break these bonds. The energy is sustained for a longer period of time, and there is no crash. o Example: Oatmeal Structural benefits: • Cellulose is a polymer of carbohydrates o Provides plants with structure o We can’t break cellulose down, so it passes through us § This fiber still aids digestion 2. Lipids • All lipids are insoluble in water • Lipids are rich in energy, which is good for long-term energy storage • Lipids are nonpolar covalent bonds o Lots of carbon-hydrogen bonds where electrons are being shared equally 3 Types of Lipids: 1. Fats- long-term energy storage and insulation 2. Sterols- regulates growth and development 3. Phospholipids- form the membrane that enclose cells Lipids: Fats: • Vertical arrangement • Glycerol (top) is a polymer • Fatty acids are monomers o Single bonds o Carbon chains are saturated with hydrogens (fulfilling octet rule) o First string has a double bond in order to satisfy the octet rule § Kink in chainà unsaturated of hydrogen § “Site of unsaturation” Lipids: Triglycerides: àWhether the fat is “saturated” or “unsaturated” depends on whether or not the fatty acid bonds are saturated with hydrogen. Saturated Fats: • Solid at room temperature • Contain all hydrogen possible • Single bonds connect all carbons o Example: uncooked steak fat o Usually come from animals (includes cheese, eggs, butter, etc.) Unsaturated Fats: • Liquid at room temperature • Single or double bonds between carbons o Double bonds produce kinks in chain o Example: Olive oil, canola oil, fish oil, avocado oil, vegetable oil, etc. o Tend to be plant orientated (except fish) Hydrogenation: • Hydrogenation is the artificial addition of hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat. This can improve a food’s taste, texture, and shelf-life o Example: fried food, Twinkies, butter, anything with a really long shelf-life o Straighten out the hydrogen chain to turn liquid fat to a solid fat so it can increase the shelf-life o Also effects taste & texture o Generally, they are not good for us 3. Proteins: • Proteins are very diverse in their functions. They have more functions in the cell than any other type of molecule • 5 roles of protein: o Structural: Hair, nails, horns o Protective: immune system; blood clotting o Regulatory: allow passage for some cells o Contractile: allow muscles to contract o Transport: Hemoglobin in cells • A protein is a chain of amino acids o 20 amino acids o amino acids= a chain of monomers • Proteins bend and fold into very specific shapes o Looks like a tangle of ribbons • Polypeptide- many bonds of amino acids (polymer) Proteins: function: • The protein’s overall shape is what determines its function o each protein’s shape is unique – explains the diversity of proteins! • If the shape of the protein is modified enough to destroy its function, it has denatured o Denatured- proteins that have lost their shape and can no longer serve their function • May happen once out of homeostasis o Example: raw egg- egg white is runny and translucentà change temperature and throw it into frying pan and the egg white turns to an opaque white and it solidifies o Example 2: Not always temperature: Ceviche is a dish where uncooked fish is exposed to low pH and high acidity in lime juice (denatures proteins) and then the fish tastes like its cooked 4.Nucleic Acids • Main function: storage and transmission of genetic information • Two types in cells: o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) o RNA (ribonucleic acid) • nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids • Each nucleotide consists of: o A 5-carbon sugar § Deoxyribose= sugar o A phosphate group o A nitrogenous base § A nitrogenous base can be A, C, T or G Differences of RNA to DNA: • No sugar (deoxyribose) • No “T”à replaced with U • Possible nitrogenous bases in a ribo.: A, C, U or G Nucleic Acids: DNA: § DNA stores genetic information on: o How to make proteins o How to replicate itself § Double-strand helix: o Two different strands of nucleotides chemically bonded together § Twisted double stranded ladder § DNA is a POLYMERE o Sugars and phosphates form the “rails” o Nitrogenous bases form the “rungs”
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