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SPHHRNG 2230: Intro: Communications and Communication Disorders

by: Alexa Notetaker

SPHHRNG 2230: Intro: Communications and Communication Disorders SPHHRNG 2230 (Speech and Hearing Science, Amy Pratt)

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These are the notes from week 2. This material will be covered on the first exam.
Intro: Communication and Communication Disorders
Amy Pratt
Class Notes
Speech and Hearing
25 ?




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHHRNG 2230 (Speech and Hearing Science, Amy Pratt) at Ohio State University taught by Amy Pratt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Intro: Communication and Communication Disorders in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week  2:  Biological  Foundations  of  Speech  &  Language   Biological  foundations  of  speech  and  language:     §   Important  to  understand  normal  systems  for  speech  and  language  to   better  understand  the  many  ways  communication  can  be  disrupted.     Vocal  mechanism:     o   Respiratory  System   o   Phonatory  System   o   Resonance  System   §   Speech  is  an  “overlaid  function.”  The  same  muscles  and  organs  that   allow  us  to  breathe  also  are  the  driving  force  behind  sound  production     §   The  larynx,  which  helps  keep  us  from  chocking  our  food,  also  provides   the  sound  source  for  our  voice       Respiratory  System:     §   Main  function  is  to  sustain  life  through  the  co ntinuous  exchange  of   gases;  oxygen  &  carbon  dioxide.   §   Breathing  is  achieved  through  movements  of  the  rib  cage  and  the   diaphragm   §   Diaphragm:  large  muscle  that  separates  the  chest  from  the  abdomen     §   Diaphragm  contracts  during  inhalation  and  relaxes  during  expiration     o   Flattens  as  muscle  contracts   §   Muscles  of  the  torso  also  support  postural  control     §   A  person  who  lacks  control  of  these  muscles  often  has  difficulty   maintaining  a  stable  posture  for  speech  b reathing     o   Developmental  disorders-­‐  low  tone     o   Acquired  brain  injury     o   Neuro-­‐muscular  disorders       The  Phonatory  System:     §   Structures  of  the  Larynx   o   Vocal  folds   o   Hyoid  bone     o   Epiglottis     o   Arytenoid  cartilage     o   Thyroid  cartilage     o   Cricoid  cartilage       The  Larynx:     §   Voice  is  achieved  by  vibration  of  2  vocal  folds  within  the  larynx     §   Vocal  folds  vibrate  together  to  make  sound     §   Cricoid  cartilage:  ring  shaped,  forms  the  base  of  the  larynx   §   Thyroid  cartilage:  sits  above  the  cricoid,  forms  the  anterior  wall  of  the   larynx  (Adam’s  Apple).  Say  “ah”  repeatedly;  feel  thyroid  cartilage   move  up  and  down   o   Crioidthyroid  muscles  attached     §   Arytenoid  cartilages:  vocal  folds  connect  to  arytenoids  posteriorly.   During  voicing  they  move  to  midline.     o   Widen  and  narrow  changes  pitch   §   Epiglottis:  flap  of  cartilage  attached  to  the  entrance  of  the  larynx   2           The  Phonatory  System:     §   Pitch  is  determined  by  size  of  vocal  folds.  Children  have  higher  voices   than  adults   o   Males>  females     3   o   When  you  separate  the  vocals  and  elongate  them,  the  pitch  gets   higher     o   When  the  vocal  folds  are  close  together  and  shorter,  pitch  is   lower   §   Changes  in  intensity  are  produced  by  changes  in  sub -­‐glottal  pressure     §   Try  to  yell  after  you  exhale     o   Hard  to  do  because  you  have  no  sub-­‐glottal  pressure  to  release       The  Resonance  System:     §   Source  of  voice  is  the  larynx-­‐  sound  is  modified  by  structures  of  the   throat,  mouth,  and  nasal  cavities     §   Sound  is  changed  by  the  shape  of  the  pharynx  (back  of  throat)  and  by   the  oral  cavity.       Articulatory  Mechanism:     §   Tongue   o   Occupies  mist  of  the  space  of  the  oral  cavity     o   Composed  of  several  muscles  so  it  can  change  shape  and  move   in  many  directions     o   Without  precise  tongue  movements,  there  can  be   no  articulate   speech     •   Have  you  ever  tried  to  talk  without  your  tongue?   How  about  talking  after  a  dental  procedure?     §   Lips:     o   Most  visible  structure  of  the  mouth     o   Lips  are  the  end  of  the  oral  vocal  tract.  Position  can  influence   resonance.     4   o   Practice  phonating  while  alternately  retracting  and  puckering   lips     o   Play  primary  role  in  “m”,  “p”,  “b”  sounds     •   What  other  sounds  produced  with  or  against  the   lips?  “f”  “v”  “w”  “er”  (“f”  and  “v”  are  similar   positions  but  “v”  is  voiced)   §   Mandible     o   Lower  jaw     o   Can  shape  size  of  oral  cavity     §   When  you  can’t  move  mandible,  you  overcompensate  and   lift  your  palate  to  make  differences  in  pitch     §   Palate     o   Hard  and  soft  structures  of  the  roof  of  the  mouth.  Underlying   bone  of  the  hard  palate  is  the  maxilla.  Soft  palate  is  also  called   alveolus     o   Alveolar  ridge  just  behind  front  teeth.  Point  of  contact  for   several  sounds     •   Which  ones?  “t”  as  in  “teeth”  and  “d”  as  in  “dog”   (same  position  but  “d”  is  more  voiced)     §   Teeth   o   Primary  role  in  chewing  food,  articulation  secondary   o   Point  of  contact  for  several  sounds     •    “s”  “th”(labiodental)    “l”  “n”     •   In  your  opinion,  which  is  the  most  important   structure  for  articulation?  Why?     5   NERVOUS  SYSTEM:     Divisions  of  the  nervous  system:     §   Central  Nervous  System  (CNS)     o   Brain     o   Spinal  Cord     §   Peripheral  Nervous  System  (PNS)     o   Spinal  Nerves  (31  pairs)     o   Cranial  nerves  (12  pairs)     The  Brain:     §   Consists  of  3  gross  divisions:     o   Cerebrum   o   Brain  stem     6   o   Cerebellum       The  Cerebrum:     §   Rounded  grey  section  of  the  brain  with  gyri  (ridges)  and  sulci  (valleys)     §   Cerebral  cortex  is  the  most  superficial  layer  of  the  cerebrum.     o   Grey  matter:  where  processing  and  regulation  of  the   information  occurs  in  the  CNS     o   White  matter:  axons  of  neurons  that  are  covered  in  a  white   sheath  of  myelin  (Myelin  allows  for  neural  impulses  to  be   transmitted).     §   Covered  in  cerebral  meninges:     o   Dura  mater,  arachnoid  mater,  pia  mater     §   Cerebral  hemispheres:     o   Longitudinal  fissures  divides  the  brain  into  left  and  right  halves     o   Corpus  callosum:  mass  of  white  matter  tracts  located  at  the  base   of  the  longitudinal  fissure  that  connects  the  2  hemispheres     §   4  lobes:  frontal,  parietal,  temporal,  and  occipital       Frontal  lobes:     §   Most  anterior  sections  of  the  cerebral  hemispheres     §   Delineated  posteriorly  by  the  central  sulcus  and  inferiorly  by  the   lateral  sulcus,  that  houses  expressive  language  and  motor  movement     o   Broca’s  area  is  responsible  for  expressive  language     §   Also  responsible  for  initiation,  planning,  judgment,  executive   functioning,  volitional  movement,  inhibition  of  behavior,  personality,   memory       7   Primary  Motor  Cortex:     A  strip  of  tissue  oriented  vertically  along  the  last  gyrus  of  each  frontal  lobe   that  plays  a  large  role  in  voluntary  motor  movement.     Parietal  Lobes:     §   Located  behind  the  frontal  lobes.  Responsible  for  receiving  and   processing  sensory  information     o   Proprioception:  an  individual’s  sense  of  where  their  extremities   and  their  body  is  in  space.     §   Not  developed  in  young  babies     §   Receives  and  processes  tactile  information  coming  from  the  body  as   well  as  proprioceptive  information           8       Temporal  Lobes:     §   Located  inferior  to  the  posterior  portion  of  the  parietal  lobes     o   Wernicke’s  Area:  located  in  the  left  temporal  lobe.  Responsible   for  auditory  comprehension  verbal  language     §   When  damaged,  people  ramble  but  make  no  sense  and   cannot  make  sense  of  what  they  are  hearing   o   Right  temporal  lobe:  responsible  for  comprehension  meaningful   environmental  information     o   Hippocampi:  responsible  for  storing  and  creating  new  memories     o   Amygdala:  deep  within  the  medial  temporal  lobes.  Responsible   for  processing  memory  and  emotional  reactions         Primary  auditory  cortex:     §   Located  on  the  superior  temporal  gyrus,  anterior  to  Wernicke’s  area   9   §   Primary  auditor  cortex  is  the  section  of  the  temporal  lobes  that  first   receives  impulses  of  speech  sounds  and  then  passes  them  on  to   Wernicke’s  area  for  processing     §   Environmental  sounds  and  music  are  processed  in  the   right   hemisphere       Occipital  Lobes:     §   Most  posterior  part  of  the  cerebral  lobes     §   Primary  visual  cortex:  receives  visual  information  from  the  eyes.   Located  on  the  most  posterior  section  of  each  occipital  l obe     §   Visual  association  cortex:  processes  and  interprets  visual  information   received  from  the  primary  visual  cortex  allowing  for  appropriate  visual   perception     o   When  damaged,  they  have  visual  agnosia     §   Visual  agnosia:  a  person  can  see  but  cannot  comprehend  what  she  is   seeing       CNS:  The  Brain  Stem     §   Continuous  with  spinal  cord     §   Connects  spinal  cord  to  the  cerebrum     §   Parts:     o   Midbrian     o   Pons     o   Medulla     §   Attachment  site  for  most  cranial  nerves     §   Processes  &  relays  info  from  cranial  nerves,  including  cranial  reflexes   (eyeblink)     10   §   Info  highway  for  sensry  and  motor  pathwats  passing  from  spinal  cord   to  higher  centers     §   Ascemding  reticular  activating  system  regulates  consciousness  and   sleep  wake  cycle     §   Relay  signals  for  sleep,  respiration,  swallowing,  bladder  control,   hearing,  equilibrium,  taste,  eye  movement,  facial  expressions,  posture,   vision.  Hearing,  motor  control,  sleep/wake,  arousal  and  temperature   regulation       CNS:  The  Cerebellum     §   Large  mass  attached  to  the  posterior  surface  of  the  pons     §   Control  center  for  movement     o   Rate     o   Range     o   Force     o   Coordination       CNS:  The  spinal  cord     §   Afferent  tacts  (bundles  of  neurons)  carrying  (sensory)  information   advancing  towards  the  brain     §   Efferent  tracts  carrying  (motor)  information  exiting  awat  from  the   brian  to  peripheral  nerves  that  innervate  muscles  and  organs  of  the   body     §   Information  highway  for  sensory  motor  information       Cranial  Nerves:     §   12  pairs     §   connect  brain  to  the  rest  of  the  body     11   §   Tables  of  nerves:       KNOW:     8-­‐  auditory     9-­‐  glossopharyngeal  nerve     11-­‐  accessory  (swallowing)     12-­‐  hypoglossal-­‐  speech,  chewing,  and  swallowing       Key  Points:     Diaphragm     Label  parts  of  larynx   Pitch,  intensity     Resonance  system     Label  nasal  cavity,  mandible   12  


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