Geology: Exploring Earth-Week 2
Geology: Exploring Earth-Week 2 GEOL 120
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KDeRoche92 on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 120 at Colorado State University taught by Bryan, Sean in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Exploring Earth: Physical Geology (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week 2 Notes: Geology Exploring Earth Plate Tectonics: 1) Outer layer of the earth is broken up into tectonic plates. 2) They move relative to each other. 3) 3 Types of boundaries between plates: Convergent Divergent Transform 4) The movement of plates explain a lot of activity and movement on Earth. Plate tectonics wasn’t widely recognized to be a valid explanation of movement of earth until the 1960’s. Alfred Wegner was the first scientist to suggest plate tectonics in the 20’s but he was debunked around the board by other geologists who believed in this movement being accounted for by contractionism and permanentism. The Earth can be broken up into 4 main layers: The crust- composition-continental crust=granite, less dense & thicker than Oceanic Crust. Oceanic crust=volcanic rock, thinner & more dense than Continental crust. The inner & outer mantle- Denser than ocean crust and the thickest layer of the earth by far! Broken up into more . layers Lithospher Cold stron Inner e g Core/ Outer Core- Inner is iron Asthenosp Melty/Soft/M Weak nickel metal here ostly Solid er composition (solid) Outer is molten **Geologists use seismic waves to discover new components to the earths composition. A Closer Look at Bounderies: Divergent & Convergent In this picture we see a divergent ocean-ocean boundary as well as a convergent Ocean-Continental Boundary. This explains the “Ring of Fire” along the Coast of the Pacific Ocean. Divergent we see fractures resulting in earthquakes on the ocean crust to either side of the Midocean ridge. The magma rises and cools, creating new ocean crust. To the right of the picture: Ocean Continental Converging boundaries: Ocean crust will subduct because it is older and denser than the continental crust. A trench is formed where the oceanic plate is subducting. As it subducts into the Asthenosphere water is released and magma is created. The magma rises because it is less dense than the Lithosphere and Continental crust, forming volcanoes. Note with the Divergent boundary, new ocean crust is formed with the magma, so the ocean floor is spreading. Ocean-Ocean converging: Very similar to Ocean Continent Converging. Density of the plates determine which plate will subduct, temperature has a part in this. If the plate is Older and Colder, it is denser. Transform Boundaries: Think of transform boundaries like pulling slices of pizza apart. They just slide apart. They mainly occur at ridges where they just slide past each other. Clicker questions… 1) Know all of the following have earthquakes: Continental-Ocean Convergent Ocean-Ocean Divergent Transform Continental-Continental Collision 2) Would you find volcanoes in a Continental-Continental Collision? No…why? No subduction so no volcanoes, the crust is so thick it is rare for magma to surface 3) What collision regions are volcanoes usually found? Continental Collision & Ocean-Continental Convergent Look at world maps of plate boundaries and be able to tell where they are and what kind of boundaries they are. To illustrate #3 CQ look at a map of the Pacific Ring of Fire and understand the Boundaries. Rules of Plate Tectonics: Boundaries either terminate or circle around the globe (mature boundaries circle the globe) Plates motions consistent throughout plate Rate of crustal consumption=rate of crustal formation Transform boundaries link different boundary types…basically transform boundaries are links. Everything is in motion and hotspots can be used for a reference frame. **Symbols for boundary type** D ---/---/---/---/--- A=Divergent B=Convergent C=Transform D=Continental For Convergent: The plate with the Teeth is “eating” the Other plate. Plate Without the teeth is subducting
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