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HDFS notes 3

by: Camryn McCabe

HDFS notes 3 HDFS 129

Marketplace > HDFS 129 > HDFS notes 3
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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Notes from 1/21
Intro to HDFS
Molly Countermine
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
HDFS notes 3: 1/21 Scientific Inquiry: studying human development o Goals of scientific investigation: 1. Description- average trends  Examples:  Newborns are usually 20” long and 7-7.5 lbs.  Infants fall into attachment categories  Adults lose weight as they age  It’s difficult to measure averages b/c there are so many variables 2. Explanation- why do we develop the way we do?  Examples:  Newborns bigger or smaller than the average can have more problems at birth  Attachment categories are a result of parenting  Adults lose muscle as they age, b/c they become less active and their cells become less efficient 3. Optimization- how can we help people develop in a positive direction?  Examples:  How can we stimulate growth in premature infants? Massage, Kangaroo Care (laying with the baby with skin to skin contact)  Teach parents what it means to be sensitive  Help older adults stay active “Science is not defined by what it studies, but by how it conducts investigations.” o The Cycle of Science Observatio Support theory or Theory modify theory Systematic observation Hypothese s o Theory- set of assumptions that attempt to describe, predict, or explain a phenomenon HDFS notes 3: 1/21 o Hypothesis- proposed explanation to a phenomenon; can be tested to determine accuracy Correlational Research o Goal: describe strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables o Ex.) Is there a relationship between class attendance and grades earned? o The result of this research is a correlation coefficient ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 o Strength is represented by the number +0.20 +0.40 +0.90 ***The bigger the ^Weak ^Moderate ^Strong number, the stronger -0.20 -0.40 -0.90 the correlation ^Weak ^Moderate ^Strong o Direction is represented by the sign o (+), Variables move in same direction  Ex.) Higher class attendance, higher grades; lower class attendance, lower grades o (-), Variables move in opposite direction  Ex.) Higher alcohol consumption, lower grades; lower alcohol consumption, higher grades o We can predict one variable from another, BUT correlation ≠ causation o Could be a 3 party variable driving the correlation o Research question: is there a relationship between X and Y? o Is there a relationship between desired level of intimacy in friendships and gender of an individual? o Hypothesis: females will show a greater desire than males o 2 concepts: gender and intimacy o Operationalizing the concepts:  Provide a clear definition of the concept OR  Designate particular instrument, test, questionnaire, etc. to measure the concept  Ex.) Gender- male, female, both, neither o Where it gets messy…  Are we measuring intimacy? …Depends on your own definition  Are we really measuring gender or affects of gender socialization? o In research, it is necessary to consider not only obvious explanations, but also alternative explanations and how concepts are operationalized. HDFS notes 3: 1/21 Developmental Designs o Developmental designs- relationship between age of subjects and another variable o Cross-sectional design- individuals of different ages are compared on a particular variable at one period in time o Demonstrates age difference o Ex.) The younger you are as a male, the more intimacy you want in relationships o Ex.) People of different age using technology differently o Advantages- saves time and money o Disadvantages- cohort effects; results may be due to subjects’ membership in a particular generation, rather than a developmental process o Longitudinal design- same individual is studied over an extended period of time o Demonstrates age changes o Ex.) Do people use technology differently as they age? o Advantages- truly studies developmental change o Disadvantages- time consuming and expensive; risk of losing participant (attrition); only studying 1 cohort; cohort effect- can’t necessarily generalize results to another cohort


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