HIST 116, Week 2 Notes
HIST 116, Week 2 Notes HIST116-26
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn White on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST116-26 at College of Charleston taught by Tammy Ingram in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see American Imperialism in History at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
2nd Week Notes Jan 19 & 21 st Progressivism & Jim Crow Change and Contradiction in the New South White Man’s Burden Poem by Rudyard Kipling 1899 Take up the White Man's burden, Send The ports ye shall not enter, The roads forth the best ye breed ye shall nread, Go bind your sons to exile, to serve Go mark them with your living, your captives' need; And mark them with your dead. To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Take up the White Man's burden And Your new-caught, sullen peoples, reap his old reward: Half-devil and half-child. The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard— Take up the White Man's burden, In The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, patience to abide, slowly!) toward the light:— To veil the threat of terror And check "Why brought he us from bondage, the show of pride; Our loved Egyptian night?" By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain Take up the White Man's burden, Ye To seek another's profit, And work dare not stop to less— another's gain. Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness; Take up the White Man's burden, The By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye savage wars of peace— leave or do, Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh the sickness cease; your gods and you. And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Take up the White Man's burden, Have Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring done with childish days— all your hopes to nought. The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Take up the White Man's burden, No Comes now, to search your manhood, tawdry rule of kings, through all the thankless years But toil of serf and sweeper, The tale Cold, edged with dear-bought of common things. wisdom, The judgment of your peers! The White Man’s burden is the task that white colonizers believed they had to impose their civilizations on the black inhabitants of their colonies. The poem sends warnings that people won’t appreciate their efforts to colonize and also they might fall but it’s worth trying. Though he gives warnings he still thinks the white man’s burden is a worthy burden. Progressive Era Usually the 1890’s – 1930’s is the time period associated with the progressive era. Was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States. [Type here] Many immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, they were perceived as less wanted then other immigrants because they did not speak English and they also practiced other religions. The progressive era was also a time of great political scandals; money was echanged for votes. Reformers wanted to eliminate corruption in government. Industrialization, urbanization, disgusting conditions (roads, sewage) Reformers set out to do something about these problems, they were considered muckrakers because they were digging up dirt on these people to get them in trouble (like modern day journalists), they wanted to expose the truth. Pushed for child labor laws, wanted cities cleaned up Famous reformers – Jane Addams, Elizabeth Katie Stanton, Upton Sinclair, Theodore Roosevelt Many think of the reformers as middle class, white people but they were many African Americans working towards change as well. Emma Ray was one – President of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union which encouraged people to drink less. Activists didn’t necessarily oppose the change, they just wanted a more tolerable, safer change A key part of the efficiency of change was scientific management, the believed it was the best way to manage change Railroads were extremely important in this time, trackage in the south more than doubled Most farmers at during this time did not own their own land, they were tenants or sharecroppers. Debt Peonage – Pay off debt with work. These farmers were in an endless debt cycle, constantly had to work for someone to pay off debt. Some skipped town but if caught they were arrested. A reform in this time made it so it was harder for African Americans to vote such as issuing literacy tests, but many in this time pushed for white women to vote Many lynching’s of African Americans in this time Good Roads Movement – They needed better roads in this time for transport so chain gangs were created in GA, AL, and SC. Prisoners were put to work on roads, many thought that putting bad people to work on bad roads would rehabilitate both at the same time. Instead it brutalized the prisoners, they did a poor job of fixing the roads. 90% of chain gangs were African Americans even when they were the minority in a town. By 1940’s chain gangs were abolished. Canal Builders Recap Theodore Roosevelt was pictured on top of a steam shovel and it became a very iconic photo of the time. Roosevelt really cared about [Type here] his self image so he wanted to be sure everyone saw this photo to show he got his hands dirty and to show the strength and confidence he had in this project. Largest group working in the canal zone were West Indians The payroll was divided into 2 sections, the gold payroll and the silver payroll. The gold payroll was for white skilled U.S men and then silver payroll was non-white men. At first it was divided between skilled and unskilled but then it was changed so that only U.S. citizens were on the gold payroll, but even U.S. African Americans were not on this roll so it was clear it was about race that determined which roll someone was. The biggest labor agitators in the canal zone were Spaniards and Italians Poultney Bigelow – journalist who wrote articles about how bad the conditions of the canal zone were. Shared how much robbery and prostitution was going on. Roosevelt was furious, considered him a muckraker. George Goethals was chief engineer and was one of the longest staying employees. He worked well with human management. ICC’s position on women was that they really didn’t want them there. Though women did obtain jobs in the zone as nurses, and teachers. They didn’t want the around men because single women around working men was not a good idea. A few deadly diseases that plagued the zone in the beginning were yellow fever, pneumonia, and malaria. Symbol of progressivism – The fact that the government had complete control over the zone and were doing a better job than a private company could have done. What was Julie Greene’s argument? She makes many throughout the book but some were 1. To show that one of America’s greatest achievements was done by many non U.S. citizens 2. To show the race issues in the canal zone There was so much criticism about the U.S’ role in the Philippines so the canal really needed to make the U.S look great again The first world war was happening at the completion of the canal and it really took the spotlight away. A year later they got to show off their achievement in San Francisco
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