Biology Chapter 13 Notes: Evolution
Biology Chapter 13 Notes: Evolution GEOG 100S
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Wolf on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 100S at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN I LEIB in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY in Geography at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
BIOL 106N Chapter 13 Notes Words to Know: Natural Selection: a process where organisms with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing their favorable traits down to their offspring Population: A group of the same species living in the same place at the same time Evolutionary Adaptation: When a population gains more of the favorable traits over time Evolution: Fossils: Imprints and remains of organisms that lived in the past Fossil Record: Ordered sequence of fossils as the appear in the rock layers Biogeography: Geographic distribution of species Comparative Anatomy: The comparison of body structures in different species Homology: Similarities in anatomical structure due to common ancestry Vestigial Structures: Features that served an important purpose for an organism’s ancestors but are not longer needed Evolutionary Tree: Visual representations of patterns of descent Modern Synthesis: Genetics plus evolutionary biology Gene Pool: Total collection of alleles in a population at any one time Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species o The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) o Natural selection causes a population to change over generations, leading to which leads to evolutionary adaptations in species o The Greek philosopher Aristotle and JudeoChristian cultures believed that species were fixed over time and had not changed since they were created. o The discovery of fossils helped naturalists explain that evolution did, in fact, occur. o Jean Baptiste de Lamarck: Organisms evolve to have the best possible traits in order to survive The Fossil Record o The fossil record shows the order in which species appeared on earth o Oldest fossils are prokaryotes, which evolve into eukaryotes o Transitional fossils link past organisms to their present day descendants Biogeography o Biogeography helps to explain how similar animals can be found in many different parts of the world Comparative Anatomy o Comparative anatomy helps biologists link species through a common ancestor based on their anatomical makeup (homology) BIOL 106N o Vestigial structures also link organisms to their ancestors Comparative Embryology o Similarities in early development also help to link species together that could have shared a common ancestor Molecular Biology o Similarities in DNA sequencing help biologists like together species that shared a common ancestor o Because DNA and RNA are the universal language that makes up all organisms, it is possible to conclude that all life is connected by one common ancestor Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection o Theory based on two observations: 1. All species produce an excessive number of offspring Population outnumbers the available resources Leads to a “struggle for existence” Only a small amount of the offspring survive 2. Variation among individuals in a population Inherited traits o Darwin’s conclusion: Individuals who inherit the best traits are more likely to survive o Evolution is a generational change, not an individual change o Natural selection can only change traits that are hereditary o Natural selection does not lead to perfect organisms Evolutionary Trees o Biologists show patterns of descent visually through evolutionary trees o Evolutionary species branch off from their common ancestors, giving the tree many different branches to show the common points of descendants o Trees are hypothetical; some have greater evidence behind them and some have less evidence The Modern Synthesis: Darwinism Meets Genetics o Darwin’s evolutionary ideas and Gregor Mendel’s genetic ideas came together with modern synthesis Populations as the Units of Evolution o Populations can be geographically isolated from each other, causing their evolution to be isolated BIOL 106N o For most genes, there are many alleles—different versions of the genes—within the gene pool Genetic Variations in Population o Several genes combine to create the variability in traits within a population o Mutations randomly change the DNA sequence and create new alleles Analyzing Gene Pools Population Genetics and Health Science Microevolution as Change in a Gene Pool Genetic Drift Gene Flow Natural Selection: A Closer Look Sexual Selection
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