Latin American History
Latin American History 179
Popular in Latin American History since 1820
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 179 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Kirk Shaffer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Latin American History since 1820 in History at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Violence and Social Conﬂict in the Aztec Empire▯ ▯ Background▯ -Aztecs were originally Mesoamerican immigrants- includes Mayans, Olmecs, and Toltecs▯ ▯ -Mayans were astronomers, built pyramids, worshipped the Sun God▯ -Chichimec- original name for Aztecs, where Aztecs originated from▯ ▯ -Lived in northern Mexico▯ ▯ -Started moving to southern Mexico (1100)▯ -1300’s- Chichimecs settled in Tenochtitlán, created an artiﬁcial island ▯ -Triple Alliance- between Aztects and other natives, in which the Aztecs were the most powerful ▯ -1500- Tenchotitlán was the largest city in the region▯ -1519- Spanish (Hernán Cortés) arrived in Tenochtitlán▯ ▯ Religion and Ideology▯ -Legend of Huitzilopochtli- god of war▯ ▯ -Gods told the Chichimecs to continue moving until they saw an eagle sitting on a cactus with a snake in its beak ▯ ▯ -Caused Chichimecs to settle in Lake Texcoco (modern day Mexico City) ▯ -Eventual merging of Mesoamerican and Aztec religion- Huitzilopochtli became the god of the sun and war ▯ ▯ -Human sacriﬁce to prevent god from destroying the world ▯ -Xipitotec- god spring, was represented by a snake▯ ▯ -human sacriﬁce of children to appease the rain gods (tears resembled rain)▯ ▯ Economy▯ -Tribute states- purpose was to expand the empire▯ ▯ -Conquered communities had to accept Huitzilopochtli and contribute to the empire ▯ -Potecas- functioned as merchants and spies▯ ▯ -Traveled the empire to ensure trade agreements▯ ▯ ▯ Rebellion▯ -Parepecha- tribe in western Mexico▯ -Tlaxcala- tribe in eastern Mexico▯ ▯ -Unconquered by Aztecs so that it would serve as a training area for Aztec ▯arrior-Eventually joined Cortés to ﬁght against the Aztecs▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Inca Empire▯ ▯ Expansion▯ -1463-1471, 1471-1493- expanded to Ecuador▯ -1493-1525- expanded to Chile▯ -Cuzco- capital city▯ ▯ Kurakas and Ayllus▯ -Ayllus- families and communities▯ ▯ -Everything is shared ▯ -Kurakas- head of Ayllus, distributes labor ▯ -Incas reshape Ayllus- tell Kurakas that Ayllus will be in charge of only making 1 product, and that this product will be sent to Cuzco ▯ ▯ Ruling the Empire▯ -Kings were seen as divine ﬁgures▯ -Exploitation of Kuraka’s children- sons were taken to Cuzco and were taught quechua (language), religion, and statecraft▯ ▯ -Girls were taken to become secondary wives to the king, or were sacriﬁced to the gods because they were seen as pure▯ -Empire consisted of around 40 million people▯ -There were road networks that served as a distribution system, messaging system, and -Mitimaes- served as spies, and helped solve problems within communities ▯ ▯ -If problems in communities couldn’t be solved, they would report back to Cuzco, bring the army and relocate the community to the outskirts of the empire▯ ▯ ▯ Resisting the Empire▯ -“Weapons of the Weak”- stop production, ﬂee, and loot▯ -Old Ika- used pottery as a weapon▯ ▯ -Incas forced the Old Ika to use pottery that only had Inca symbols on it, but the Old Ika would dig up their ancestor’s pottery and use that instead▯ -Shuar- never defeated by the Inca or Spaniards ▯ ▯ -Amazon warriors▯ ▯ -Cut off their enemies head, shrink it, and wear it around their necks so that the power of the dead warrior would be absorbed▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Spanish Conquest of the Caribbean and Mexico▯ ▯ Colombus’s 4 Voyages▯ -1492-93▯ -1493-96▯ -1498-1500▯ -1502-04▯ -Conquistador motto- “God, Gold, and Glory”▯ ▯ Spanish Expansionism (1508-11)▯ -Bullionism- the idea that wealth is based on gold▯ ▯ -What the Spaniards believed▯ -1508- Ponce de León conquered Borinquen (Puerto Rico)▯ -1511- Spanish conquered Cuba▯ca▯ ▯ Conquest of Mexico (1519-19)▯ -1518- ﬁrst Spanish contact with Aztecs▯ -Juan de Grijalva- led the ﬁrst expedition, and reported to Juan de Velásquez (gov. of Cuba) that there was gold and cities▯ -1519- Hernán de Cortés is given permission to lead a new expedition and start an encomienda in Mexico▯ ▯ -Encomienda- labor grant for indigenous while teaching them Christianity▯ ▯ ▯ -Was actually exploitation, and the natives suffered a lot▯ -Gov. of Cuba called of expedition at the last minute▯ -Malinche- was Cortés’s translator (spoke Maya and Nahuatl)▯n illegal invasion▯ ▯ -Contributed greatly to the conquest of the Aztecs and is portrayed as a traitor ▯ ▯ Moving towards Tenochtitlán▯ -1519- Cortés encounters Cempoalans and defeats them, so the entire community joined him▯ ▯ -Joined by Tlaxcalans▯ -Moctezuma- Aztec emperor, is told by priests that Cortés may be a returning god▯ ▯ -Quetzalcoatl prophecy- Quetzalcoatl is a bearded, pale, cloak wearing god. He left Mesoamerica to sail east, and promised to return to his homeland▯ ▯ Cortés takes Tenochtitlán▯ -1519- Cortés is welcomed by Moctezuma and the Aztec people▯ -Cortés and Moctezuma co-rule the empire, and Cortés tries to change the religion▯ ▯ ▯ Problems Encountered▯ ▯1520--When Cortés shows Narváez the gold, the majority of his ﬂeet decides to join Cortés▯ -Pedro de Alvarado- is left in charge of Tenochtitlán▯ ▯ -Angers Aztecs because he forbids dancing and festivals▯ and war, and starts killing the Aztecs ▯llion because of the festivals to the god of sun ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯