Week 1 In-Class Notes
Week 1 In-Class Notes Psych 360
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorena Roberts on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Social Perception 1 January 21, 2016 Social Perception: Making Sense of our Social World I. Social Cognition A. Bottomup (datadriven) and TopDown (theory driven) Processing Bottomup: Processing the world as it is; the stimuli are influencing what we think of the world; we meet people and we discover who they are based on who they are Topdown: what we expect; preconceived notions B. Schemas the lifeblood of TopDown processing Schemas are a set of expectations; beliefs, feelings Example: The Bank Teller should offer to help you; expectation that they will take the role of what we think they should do in our head. 1. What a schema is Expectation/Belief/Feeling 2. Types of schema a. Person (or group, i.e., stereotype) b. Self c. Role d. Event 3. How schemas affect social perception a. Influence Memory of Information a.1. Remember SchemaConsistent Information Cohen (1981) When people think of a “waitress,” what do they think of? Cohen collected information about waitresses and librarians. Glasses, “she,” reads, drinks wine. She had a male and female actor have a dinner conversation and recorded them talking; she scripted their conversation so that when the wife was talking, she spoke in librarian and waitress consistent behaviors; the audience was given the expectation that the wife was either a librarian or a waitress; following the movie, they had to recall what the wife was; the results found that they recalled things that were consistent with their preconceived expectation of whether the wife was a librarian or a waitress a.2. Remember SchemaInconsistent (not irrelevant) Information Cohen (1981) Cohen repeated the experiment and told the audience ahead of time or afterwards that the wife was a waitress or librarian Social Perception 2 This was to see whether it mattered if they were going into the experience with an expectation or if it could come afterwards Beforehand: better schemaconsistent memory information as well as schema inconsistent memory than those who were told afterwards Schemainconsistence: your brain spends time processing the information that does not fit with your preconceived notions This extra attention that you give to it, gives it an advantage in your memory b. Influence Interpretation of Information o Duncan (1976) He videotaped two actors sitting at a table, one actor gets up and pushes the other actor; he manipulated the race of the perpetrator and the victim Sometimes the victim was white or black and the perpetrator was white or black Afterwards, participants answered whether or not the perpetrator was “violent” They found that the race of the actor was what mattered The answers that the perpetrator was violent were higher percentages when it was a black person c. Elicit schemaconsistent behavior (e.g., Selffulfilling prophecy) I. Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977, JPSP, 35, 656666) a. University of Minnesota: Pairs of men and women strangers were put into separate cubicles but did not get to see each other; they were told that communication is what was being studied; the woman didn’t know that the man was given a picture of a really attractive or really unattractive woman b. “Attractive” people have a social boost c. The strangers speak to each other through phones while it’s being recorded; blind judges that either hear just the woman talking or just the man d. The conclusions of the study found that: i. When the judges listened to the woman who was speaking with a man who had an attractive photo of a woman—she sounded friendlier ii. When they listened to the men who thought they were talking to an attractive woman, they sounded nicer, more at ease iii. When you’re interested in the person, you’re more outgoing, and you’ll say things that elicit positive responses; feed off of each other C. How are Schemas “Activated?” Explicit processing: actively thinking Implicit processing: the brain asking questions without you being necessarily aware of it 1. Categorization 2. Priming (activated by previous information processing) a. Our minds influence us even when we aren’t aware of it. Bargh and Pietromonaco (1982, JPSP, 43, 437449) o Sit in front of a computer and track flashes of light; pay attention to the flashes Social Perception 3 o The flashes were words, but they were too quick for the participant to read o Slow enough for the brain to read and interpret it; but too fast to consciously read it o The words had either to do with hostility or something neutral o The hostile words were “insult, push, punch, stab” o Neutral: chair, stapler o Some people saw 0 hostile words, 20% hostile, 80% hostile o Ambiguously hostile events in which the participant then had to decide whether or not “Rodney” was being hostile o The people who were primed with 80% hostile words were more likely to say Rodney was being hostile than those who experienced lesshostile words o If our expectations are guiding us, we’re seeing things as we think they are instead of as they are. If we aren’t active information processors, why would our brain evolve that way? Why do we have a complex organ that doesn’t allow us to see the world the way it is, but instead how we expect it to be? D. What is the purpose/function of TopDown processing? E. When do we use Bottomup Processing? Neuberg & Fiske (1987, JPSP, 53, 431444) Patient reintegration program; wanted to see if it was helpful for schizophrenics to interact with college students Intro to psych students were told to interact with “Frank” at a table and see how many things you can create with Frank at the table You have a chance to win $20 Outcomedependent: Some thought their creative objects would be compared up against the creativity of others in the study Nonoutcome dependent condition: compare your creativity to other college students, you could win $20; Frank’s creativity will be compared to other schizophrenics When Frank didn’t matter, the student did not spend time reading the sheet Experiment 1: Does outcome dependence increase attention to individuating material? Experiment 2: Does outcome dependence increase time spent forming an impression? II. Attribution A. Two Sources To Which Behavior Is Attributed 1. Internal or Dispositional Attribution 2. External or Environmental Attribution Social Perception 4 B. Theories of Attribution 1. Theory Correspondent Inferences (Jones & Davis, 1965) 1.a. Social Desirability 1.b. Noncommon Effects 2. Covariation Theory (Kelly, 1967) 2.a. Three attributions (a) reflects a disposition of the actor, (e.g., Bob is lecherous) (b) was elicited by a characteristic of the stimulus, (e.g., Tracy is irresistible) (c) or was a function of the situation. (e.g., Bob is drunk) 2.b. Three sources of information Consensus: how do other people react to the stimulus? Consistency: how does the actor react to the stimulus in other situations? Distinctiveness: how does the actor react to similar stimuli? 2.c. How information gained from sources influences attribution 3. Twostep Model of Attribution (Gilbert, ) E.g., Gilbert. C. Attribution Biases 1. Cognitive Biases 1.a. The Fundamental Attribution Error E.g., Jones & Harris (1967) proCastro or antiCastro speeches 1.b. The ActorObserver Effect Salience Explanation E.g., Taylor & Fiske (1975) This experiment demonstrates the role of saliency in the attribution process. 2. Motivational Biases 2.a. Selfserving bias 2.b. Severity bias,E.g., Walster (1966)
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