Intro to Cell Chemistry
Intro to Cell Chemistry 20146
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20146 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Robert Major in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Principles of Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Princples of Cellular and Molecular Biology T/R 3:30-4:45 Major Week of 1/19/16 Introduction to Cellular Chemistry 1) All matter is composed of these atoms: H, C, N, and O. a. Atom: smallest part of an element i. Still has specific chemical properties b. Molecules: formed by binding atoms together 2) Anatomy of an Atom a. Core=nucleus i. Proton: positive charge; atomic number ii. Neutron: no charge iii. Atomic weight: P+N b. Electron cloud i. Electron: negative charge c. Isotopes: atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons i. 12C (6p+6n) ii.14C (6p+8n) becomes unstable 3) Atom Interaction a. Atoms are stable when “shells” are filled i. Proper number of electrons b. Ionic bond: electrons are donated i. One atom has an extra electron and gives it to the other ii. Both atoms then become stable and are connected iii. Table salt iv. Ions for salts which are not molecules because they do not have covalent bonds c. Covalent bonds: electrons are shared among atoms i. Unstable atoms without filled shells ii. Very strong iii. Single bond: one pair of electrons are shared iv. Double bond: two pairs of electrons are shared d. polar covalent bond: oxygen takes on partial negative, hydrogen takes on partial positive i. creates a polar molecule e. hydrophilic: molecules that mix well with water i. solutes ii. solvent iii. solution f. hydrophobic: molecules do not mix well with water i. non-polar ii. hydrocarbons 4) Organic Molecules a. Smaller organic molecules form larger molecules. i. Monomers macromolecules b. Sugarspolysacchrides i. Monosacchride (one sugar) ii. Disacchride (two sugars) iii. Oligosacchride (short chain of sugars 10-12) iv. Polysacchride (long chain of sugars) c. Macromolecules are formed through condensation i. Add monomer, molecule of water is released as a product ii. Glycosidic bond: between two sugars iii. Hydrolysis: adding water molecules to break bonds d. Fatty acids fats and lipids i. Amphipathic: non-polar end + polar head ii. Non-polar iii. Hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail iv. Hydrophilic carboxylic acid head v. Soap vi. Unsaturated: kinked with double bonds; no water vii. Saturated: more water; straight viii. Glycerol: binds to saturated and unsaturated tails through condensation and becomes head; broken by hydrolysis ix. Phospholipids: modified lipid through synthesis; phosphate linker to polar head; form a lipid bilayer: non-polar tails inside/polar heads towards the outside e. Amino acids proteins i. AA=amino group+ carboxylic acid group+ side chain specific to that AA ii. Peptide bond: created through condensation, strands create proteins iii. Side changes: charged (basic or acidic), polar, non-polar f. Nucleotides nucleic acids i. Nucleotide= nitrogenous base+ sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) + phosphate ii. ATP iii. Phosphodiester bonds forms through condensation
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