Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 2
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 2
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 03 02 Sept 2008 ConBio Ethics Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R Primack Chl University of Arizona pp 6468 of Ch3 F8 2008 Meine et al 2006 Callicott 1997 Kevin Bonine Mary Jane Epps Ugcoming Readings Thurs 04 Sept Leopold readings see website Tues 09 Sept Primack Ch2 Myers et al 2000 1sT Lab FM 1230 Sep 5th west side BSE Hot water sunscreen closetoed shoes 1 Readings on Course Website Student Chapter of the Tucson Herpetological Society Reptiles amp Amphibians Club EllD mal fl nmsl First meeting of the semester 39I39hurs September 4th 6PM in Bio Sciences East I FREE PIZZA 2 What do the data tell us Name US Footprint ha Other Footprint ha Kevin B 79 25 18 89 in Botswana M1ke 53 99 28 65 in greeee ToddI 59 49 27 o2rta1y Nathan 54 07 15 71 China Anne 49 31 518 Tanzania Gien 39 3o 5 Finland Amanda 44 29 9 44 Kenya Kevin 57 01 22 3 Guaternaia Jhenmie 3o 37 2 8 Jarnarea Meryl 33 18 10 31 Swrtzeriand Km 55 04 714 Vretnarn Phuong 7120 5 39 Vretnarn Ursula 55 94 18 70 Argentana D 7616 7 656 Namibia D 67 32 4 05 Argnamstan Antpe 58 29 35 25 Germany Km 98 3 24 8 China Hrtornr 54 5 35 52 Japan Arny 44 57 34 82 Czeen Zaen 5199 14 9o Argentana Andrew 75 91 77 58 Australia Ashwm 5196 3 79 IndAa Brandon 8131 34 29 Swaziland Lauren 5916 33 81 Spam Mackenzie 42 7 1o 03 Thailand Isabel 54 72 33 91 Japan Kai 89 91 19 55 Botswana Boberto 48 18 44 Japan 6262 for 28 2154 mas o menos 3 Social Issues Related To Conservation Biology are Challenging There are only 1571 global hectares available per person on a renewable basis This means we are overshooting the Earth39s biological capacity by nearly 50 To sustain present levels of consumption we would need Q r 1511 EARTHS 23471571 15 What is Conservation Biology Primack Ch1Meine et al 2006 Discipline defined by its goal Is it Science What is Conservation Biology Primack Ch1Meine et al 2006 Talking Points Normative Conversation 2 Conservation Interdisciplinary Big Game 9 Biodiversity Leopold 9 Soul N American focus Advocacy vs Objectivity Science vs Finger Painting Soul 39s 1985 normative postulates 1 Biological diversity is good and should be preserved 2 Untimely extinctions are bad SUPERKILLING 3 Evolution is good genotypic variation and should continue process extinct in the wild 4 Ecological complexity should be maintained emergent property 5 Biotic diversity has intrinsic value intrinsic vs instrumental 7 Biodiversity contains the accumulated wisdom of nature and the key to its future If you ever wanted to destroy a society you would burn its libraries and kill its intellectuals You would destroy its knowledge Nature s knowledge is contained in the DNA Within living cells The variety of genetic information is the driving engine of evoluljon the immune system for life the source of adapt ability Callicott 1997 Nki mulls PRIMER OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 4e Figuna 12 anqu 6 as a go 9 0 Ex as gs m lt3 amaa 5 an can A a a M4 5 stse Q u a 0 0 w o 96 A 0 4 9 x 6 4 ok lga W39m a s r xasygz 12mg Phys skew Epidemiology wim m 10105y 1 CANCER i CONSERVATION Social Sciences l BIOLOGY BIOLOGY 390 11139 asap I a 3 a quotg 3 gso TE g g 3 o s 39 3amp2 5 35 oue 1985 Q g Figure 1 Cancer biology and conservation biology are both synthetic multidisciplinary sciences The dashed line indicates the arti cial nature of the borders bctween disciphmes and benign basic and applied research See text Crisis Discipline 10 i dicciplines one m I act hcl urc knowing UN emu LlwiJuws u39c lhus u miuurc ol cn uml ml and lhuir mrwil Acquiw inluiliull in well as inlbrmulion Soul 1985 In t he Noss 1999 11 Values Ethics Philosophy Svstematwc orgamzanon of va ues Basws for est manor of Worm VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY Instrumentalutilitarian Intrinsicinherent 12 Intrinsic v Instrumental Valuation Table 21 Four Categories of the Instrumental Value of Biodiversity Category Examples Goods Food fuel fiber medicine Services Pollination recycling nitrogen fixa tion homeostatic regulation Information Genetic engineering applied biolo gy pure science Psychospiritual Aesthetic beauty religious awe scienti c knowledge Callicott 1997 13 Madagascar Periwinkle Argument Callicott 1997 p 30 Vincristine to treat Leukemia Arrogant and Trivialquot 14 Table 21 Ecosynem senlug and Fundlan l39cnsy cm scrrw mlnpu r rugulminn Whnn Ewanowequot mm lnm mr vnmnmll ngvu hran lxghr Imu lwlmn mlmw w rrgulannn mam ul vlvHr mama Mum Inna lurvnuilm lnsmllun mummn mm vmu cuuu ood ovmul anan rccuwn ml um 351 an controlled m 39X1U llllllllllll v x m regulunuu WWW n l m lm gmmmn much 5 wrlmnrynl mm x ml 1 mum 11100530 11 ammmm mm Ilpph rmmmnmg m mm In wumhcds rumm m mullrs mm mm and PM mun r l vi and 1 ml mun w m y umuml WM Hm xmlnmut nmmuu Lle a Mllsz 39s l K39 mnmm hulmmw nl md Jud vhu mam mm of uuuxm numml nmmu xulmu mm n Ilumm mum vhmpluum m mlm rlclucllml or munm cycle mm mm 1xv nurmum 39mlluuun Wm WWW mummy lrmmm gt nrwlnmm rm Iu mpmumm spun mmlumm Ilmloun n mumll Musmm pnlhlm umrml 4 p qwuv rulnuum n hcrlvwm M MD pmdnmn Mum mm lubuq aquot m mn gtpcnvsrownallub1m5 rm mm lmrwsml mm ur mum mmle mound lmul pnnlmnmn l39 umquot ul m m ml nun 1ml 1mm m lumnng Lurhmmg mlmxrrnw mrmmg ur shng um nmrcvmls m rmdnmmn n Ian um deu llmu roam unlmm mam a mud Is sumcc Nln lm39 mmm m mm pulmgclw ml mv pn39l ummuulnl W mm m Imrmmml Hm u39 plmul nm in lawman mm mm mlmlur mmml mnu AnnuL mlmanulml splnuml mllur mmmn nluo m vzunm m nmumw mm mm m mr lvvl Mrw m w mmwmmu l run a quotlbwmwmwnl Brennan and vwngun ZEIEIE Modern Con Bio starts in Colter s Hell John Colter 1807 Lewis and Clark Yellowstone Area ThnmasMannan m Mammalh Temces Phnlnguph bny mm H mm 1271 NanonalPakaavwca m RomanticTranscendentalist Preservation Ethic vs Resource Conservation Ethic Preservation vs Conservation 1 7 RomanticTranscendentalist Preservation Ethic Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau John Muir Sierra Club 1892 NGO Education Lobby LawPolitics Yellowstone National Park 1872 Yosemite National Park 1890 ESA 1917 gt Nature Conservancy 1950 18 Ral h Wald Emma 13031332 Henry David Thoreau 181771862 A Successful life quotTo laugh oiten and much to win the respect oi intelligent people and the ailection oi children to earn the appreciation oi honest critics and endure the betrayal oi ialse iriends to appreciate beauty to nd the best in others to leave the world a bit better whether by a healthy child a garden patch or aredeeined social condition to know even one lire has breathed easier because you have livedquot 7 Ralph Waldo Emerson r Many go shing all their lives without lmowing that it is not sh they are a er Beware of all enterprises that require new clothes It is not worthwhile to go around the worldto count the cats in Zanzibar Wherever a man goes men will pursue him and paw him with their dirty institutions and ifthey can constrain him to belong to their desperate oddfellow socie 2n 10 quotpoe cotralnpogeold st John Muir 18381914 21 Teddy Roosevelt president 1901 1909 Wm M wow mm m H L W M p Wigwam 11 To Roosevelt it was clear that a handful of individuals and their companies were reaping most of the profits from natural resources that rightfully belonged to all CltlZenS aank22umu 1n early 1900s Trustbuster Resources for use but forever National Wildlife Refuge System 52 designations by TR 2 Gifford Pinchot The greamst good for me greamst nu mber for me longest timequot resource conservation ethic 1 Equity 2 Ef ciency gm momma elm Mu eomeu cl rhe venue nngvnhzn mlE JEdevcrbuililh monogram quotgr lDyea us rm Semi and my 1 24 12 Sustainable Use Maximum Sustained Yield USE those resources 25 MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield a 53 m a E E250 39 V200 Em gm 35 hm hm in m 0 2m 4m 5 M U 200 400 500 mu 511m Valday E on maill Loqistic Growth Curve Kl O a 37 N39 emunan l I r r 2 I v f s a Day The growth or pupuimnn of Parnmtcium minimum 13 Modern Conservation Biology National Parks US Transferable 27 Game Management 1932 A Sand County Almanac 1966 revohtionecology land ethic quotgm Ls vanykgznnz mam Em anulwenhwJmewallanmandhlhurl llve Mamba 4 v Land Health and the AB Clavage Commodmes A vs Processes B 22 14 Values Ethics Philosophy Monetizing discount rate rates of growth and reproduction Economic development sh0it sighted BCA Valuation methods willingness to pay accept travel cost existence value contingent valuation bequest value 29 Figure 22 Convenironni View oi economic aclivity in a market Pure Marks Econamic System eoonomn system economic goods and money ow between households and businesses in a closed loop In many econoii ir Fiaw or may its textbooks such market ecOnOiiilc systems are shown as here as ii they were selircoriiairied and thus independent oi ine naiurai iesuurces that support all economies and all his This mouei reinforces the idea that unlimited economic growth of any Kind is sustainable Money News imrri nousonoios ro businesses to pay lor products 141 Miller 2003 How oi products Households Flow of factors oi production Conventional Economics Money iiows lrorri businesses to nousenoids to pay for lalmi and other production Flow or money 15 Ecological Economics Nllnrll CuW Au mm land Mill mamguy mmmu 3 mmmis annl v trimming and llu un mmmnnn m mycliilu serum 142 Miller 2003 Are humans Thr39eaTened endangered Do you Think The ESA could be invoked for any human populaTions quot 9 5 39 I i Should our39 comforT be valued over39 The lives of fuTur39e gener39aTions The lives of individuals of oTher39 species The conTinued evoluTion of The exisTing biodiver39siTy on The planeT 39 Ell mu II39 32 i 16 Anthropocentric Biocentric Ecocentric 33 Evolution of rights monarchs white males all menquot humanity sentient beings nature 5mm ngnw 7 Ijmmnu gamma see Nash essay in Callicott 1997 chapter 34 17 Burden of Proof Responsibility precautionary principle SMS safe minimum standard 1 Instrumental 2 Intrinsic also 3 BCA 4 SMS Plastic Trees in Los Angeles Developers Conservationists B of P B of P B of P B of P knowledge gt advocacy 35 Perhaps our grandsons having never seen a wild river will never miss the chance to set a canoe in singing waters Leopold6 18 Values Ethics Philosophy Rolston Essay p 35 in Callicott 1997 species vs species in the system definition of species vaue of evolutionary trajectory extinction and doors temporal and spatial scales Values Ethics Philosophy Ethics constrain selfserving behavior in deference to some other good Tragedy of the Commons Role of religions interpretation 38 19 Sczence Vol 162 Issue 3859 12431248 13 December 1968 The Tragedy onhe Commons Garrett Hardin The uageayauhe cmnmans dwelapsm msway chuxe apasmre apenta a nrsmhe expened that each hexdm an wxll try in keep as marry came as passhxe an the cammans Such an arrangement maywark reasmably sahsfacmnlyfax cemurres becausembal wars panchmg aha asease keep the rmhers af bath mar and beast wen belww the cmymg capacxty uf Lb land Fmany hawever carr es Lb aay afxeckamng thaws Lb daywhen39helangrdeaxed gaa uf sacxal stabhtybecames a reamy Athspan the mhzxmtlagc auhe cammans remmselessly gemnuskagedy As a hand bung each hzxdmmn seeks ta maxrrmre hrs garh Exphcmy ar rrhphcmy mare ar less canscmusly he asks VlhansLhe uhmy m m af aaarhg ahe mare arrrna w my hermWhrsumnyhas an hegauye and me pashve campmem 1 The pasuye campahehns a ruhcuah huh rhcrerhehe uf an ahrrhaa Smce 39he herdsmmxecewes an 39he pmceeds mm the sa1e af Lb aaamaha annual 39he pasxuve minty 15 mulyl 2 The hegahye campmem 15 a mum af Lb addlham ayergranhg Heated by me mare ammal Smce haweyer Lb effects uf ayergrarmg are shareahy an 39he herdsmen the hegauye mmyfax my pamcuxar decxaanmakmgherdmm 15 my arracuahar e1 Addmg tagz hex 39he campahehe paws uuhues the Miami hexdm an cmcludes that Lb mly smsxble caurse fax hrrr tapu sue 15m aaa armsz annual ta hs hem Aha ana39hex ahaahmher Emhrs 15 Lb cmchsrah reached by each and every rauma hexdmmn sharrrrg a camm ans Therern 15 the tragedy Each mar 15 lacked mm a system that campels hrr ta rhcrease hs herd wahwut hrmuerh a wmldthahshmned Runxsthe aesurraummwarawhrch a rhehrush eachpursmnglms awnbest mtuest m a sunny that heheyes m the rreeaarr athe camm ans Freedam m a cammans bnng um m an Tnhl33 my murmur cramhumuurnmr m naunlxw 39n1E or m MOTthTluN run conszn mam Judtvrhmlwvwzmmmup ncrrmc l ruaznclhccmbg cmwavaHmGrimmmmuumkdhumm u m rarrrercmpmrr tyymc pr 1mm whammywan H mm w wnhl icrmu z m Hummuhaukl rapc vm mu rams Gmwmunmarh 7 rarapammwme MW nmzmwmmuwhermmmwrwmmWm Mhunylmm hmmlmm an muan wwuymca ulworu lcnmumnm M ac mpmzd 1 lmnfvmmmuhw Mummm Vkv rnhrwnnmwuucnfumur mnchnumduaahtum mammmquot amarcrmc dzcrnh uummnm m murhunm aluminum 4 rorkmmmrmam Amhm xlzuum newkcuprurrrucrmmcurmmecawmrham 39wmdm mvn39mh c mecrcnrccrmmcm r Meyermcere munanme b WNW Hrtconnm ttmhsmn kc Emu aw m Whammy acmc rrmramur mcmmcrrme 42 k umuwwumtm arehrmaam s Srwnmltnmumhun shcmeamraw sacrummcuntxanxmmmn39Hxltcn ngvmvcl umcsilw muwan wonum mummy w wakum m mama w hm Imumumr yam c hrrprraw h tnfcmmhm Amhmyntulm name rmammmrmWNW maa kamramm frmmmu warmer WW urcammmm Mk mun Mllltmmw uan Ind um1ngtMmlt 7 l lumhwvpnnmuum wmmparemc mmhwmn rmrramnearr mwrasrmrmmwpmae km k quoteraquotwrmr Mm wry mam m v chm prrrrmkr m N Wu uddmssamnmmcnln wcs 1 AU Vzn We znnz 20 Van Dyke Chapter 1 p 5 Genuine and enduring conservation can occur only When humans knowingly use resources at less than maximum sustainable rates or forgo the use of some resources altogether RESTRAINT Philosophy eg Plato Religion eg Judaism Nobility and their Forests 41 Rachel Carson Silent Spring 1962 VBtoaccumulaUOn rLevels and scale rEnvtronmental degradation threaten huma ea0 7 Vlncreased Pubhc Awareness me am u 5 Fished aegiymamea Myquot 5mg um a mm b m Enwuvrenbl 21 Environmen ral Ethics pp 6468 of Primack Ch3 1 Environmental 2 Economic 3 Social Justice Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race color national origin or income with respect to the development implementation and enforcement of environmental laws regulations and policies EPA has this goal for all communities and persons across this Nation It will be achieved when everyone enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards and equal access to the decisionmaking process to have a healthy environment in which to live learn and work US EPA PvaREMEmAnoN or cameos sRownFtELDs Comldlrltlull of Ecobglel Appmlthls ma Sutal tutn Phyt0remediation LWHBMWastvhll usDAFntastswca gt B rown eld North Central Renard saten us chime Ava mitts 225 Emstttn tLttmm yawntam Hestphil Lynne M xsettr 4 arms 157 230 JGAlsehmnds Phytov emedt atiun of China D39s hr N Mugm c stsu giese Dunggeratian of ecnlngicgt WZSZiQE Eia a will asun mat Such issuus In E ms WMK romfields zoot proceedr antnetanaen wt mm mm rnytnmntadtatton is an Elnth tdtnulogy tar mumbling mam mama and may contaminated it Mlny tabnmety m eld tut havI demonstrated Inn nan 3nd emu vsgetntton an n ma mum a mntntn tt variety M mntamlnnltts tnctttatng ml and nmy melab Ind volatile utgnntca mmttgn hymullc wmmt absorption and mywlminl sanity ln tnn toot me am phywmnedtl ml can twt I mm In an m lhe shelf festh Mann plants grow dntsnnlty an dmnmnl mil untth mmnmmnments and mm you at mnhmhanls sits and untranttnant specmc pmlbmll are needed In altaaivm us Mmmeutattun But has and cmnr plants do mull man mama s mtttttxnu tn many men a lamsmpewttn tutu and after plan can hm n stgnmum impan on humans FortMtence a green hn stzw an mm sites tame mun m mngtnan nulgttbomood Ilse And bonus owte deep ttacnmnu nutty pewph have n he tnte unmal amnmaa an elmem nl phytmdlam can be pmtemattc wtun nu ma imnlk allms at mesa ecological and mat tuttrliuns at vegalanan for WM mwhpmnn Wu mates how to wruth 3 blologtml 2nd mat mm at pnytommodluhn to mnximlza effectuate as a cleJlHlp tunnutugywnnn also emntnn xnu manual M signttbant wall unpttcntnns at a granite nttmn nwonmnnt A new mused phylmms latlon Mullgy ls outlined and spasms won an apartment tn tn oatttmm Ivyiwn otan an plusuntbd u n as may in lllusuata my to develop stn meme pnyttamneamntn pruoenll PMMHI met implica ltons at ms mt ulnar phytovmwlamn Bwllca ons tn Calumet at llw mama 44 22 How Healthy is Your Town Superfund Sites 1 Yeoman Creek Land ll anatinn Southeast Waukegan Backstnry From 1959 to 1969 a 7oeacre land ll wth no protectrye llner ChicagoMagCom Oct 2005 Damage PCB hrghlytoxrc cancerous matenals lndusmal solvents lead znc exploslve land ll gases 2 Jolret Army Ammunrtron Plant anau39un Between Interstate 55 and Illlnols state Route 53 Backstnry By 1945 the largest munrtrons factory ln the world Damage Unerploded ordnance TNT dynamrte and metal n sell and groundwater 3 Outboard Manne Corp Lecau39un North end ofWaukegan Harbor Backstery ste once housed a sport englne manufacturer and a coke and gas plant Damage PCB ln harbor sedrment and sell Did obama volunteer NW 4 Lenz oll Serylce Chicago 0 SE anz un Route 83 ln Lamont Chicago Backslury From 1961 w 1985 an oll and solvent recycle Nhy9 Damage A contamrnated oll layer undagound threatens the nearby Des Plalnes Rwer 39 5 amp 6 KemMcGee two out of four 51111 111 cleanup anz un West Chlcago 10 south ofWal39rmVllle Backstery A lrghtrng company that worked wth the federal atomtc energy program 45 Damage Radroactrye byproduct ln Kress Creek the DuPage Rlv er yards parks Hm t trntnnnnntnuuu Pesnicidcs and Child Development In szicn s anui Vallcy 1 n94 Dvwlnm a rum n Mutt mun mun n lnnnn Mn 1v hum runquot 1 tnnntnnn nn n and nunnt mvmm 1m nt n n W nnr 1YgtJ1AHU1 Evennan and vvttneutt zuua 46 23 Table 21 Ecosystem Services and Funuians Us mm scn Icc mm Gas regldznhm Chmnw n guhrkm Dlmnbnnw minimum 391rcr r mem Vnn r sllrvl Brown mm and wxlnncn relennun Sml inmmm xmam ing m nmnm nl MI mm Bmloglml tnmrol Krfugm mm pmdmmn Raw manml mu n39svun rs cannon L uimml Curlva dimidxqugcn mm ululw m pmmim xgmn MumIqu ligll Ure lllou u mm n mmum ulyludc MAM 11mg mud nummm Storm pmm mm Hand munI droughl remm and um 35pm mmrullcd by regmnnn Innmt lei oning of mm I39m Agnulhuml Isuclu as xmgannn or indusmal Such m mulling pnxo scs nr Innspmannn Prm hiouing of mm by uncrshcds rrscnmrs and aquifers Prcwmion of 05 of soil by wind runoff or m1ch Wnlmdl procrsses storage of an m lakes and wetlands Wmhmm of mL md m AuunnLniun ox ulguuu Humid Numgm Immm mtrngcu phnwhuru mu um clummlml m uumuu ucln sxc nmmmu pollutqu wnunL dtnx ctiuu I nmug l v 1mm m du mpnnmm r39 plm pup1mm Kcysnmr prchmr cmmcnl of prey mu mdmmn m hcrhix39nr by mp mann Xunmcs Imbumr m migratory spurns mng halnmvs for Inca hannrul wants or uvcnwnwnng grounds l39mdummx ul39 ssh gamc crops nurs and inns b or shing The production ol 1mm incl nr mm hunnug guhcnng whustcncc farming Mudldnc pruducrs fur manml clrn gum mr rwmanu m rlxm pnllmgcn md mp mm omnmcnul spent Wars and humcmrurzl menn m mem hunt kcuzuunsm put shmg md new mum rmnnhunnl mum amsnc cduunoml splnmJl andM schmm u ms of msystcms by 1m uw m m rxJ mn mm Ruhr 0mm u an nI quotMy Man m mam Brennan and Withgott 2005 Science Management Policy 49 24
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