New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience EXP3604

Marketplace > University of Florida > EXP3604 > Chapter 2 Cognitive Neuroscience
Brittany Woody

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Includes summaries of lectures, additional videos, and chapter 2 of the text.
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Stagner
Class Notes
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star

Popular in Cognitive Psychology

Popular in Department

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXP3604 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Stagner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.

Similar to EXP3604 at UF


Reviews for Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience

Star Star Star Star Star



Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/21/16
Monday, January 18, 2016 Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience Lecture Notes - Cognitive neuroscience: the physiological basis of cognition - Areas of the brain, which neurons, etc - Involves an understanding of both the nervous system as well as neurons - Neurons: cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit information in the nervous system - Each neuron has cell body, axon, and dendrites - Once believed that neurons created a nerve net, similar to a highway system; that they communicated in a continuous network - This idea was contradicted by the neuron doctrine by Ramon y Cajal Used Golgi staining to stain neuron so that you could see structure, parts, and • connections • Found that individual nerve cells transmit signals but are not continuous with other cells (synapses) - Cell body: contains mechanisms to keep cell alive; nucleus - Dendrites: branch-like structures that reach out from cell body to receive information from other neurons - Axon: tube-like structure filled with fluid that sends information as electrical signals to other neurons - Action potential: neuron receives stimulus from environment (like a touch on the skin) then information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of another neuron - Action potentials are measured using microelectrodes; picks up electrical signal output by neuron - Each electrode is placed near an axon; each action potential lasts around one second - Sizes of action potentials are consistent, the rate of firing is what changes between stimuli and what is measured 1 Monday, January 18, 2016 - Low intensity stimuli (light touch) yields slower firing; higher intensity stimuli creates faster firing - Synapse: space between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another - When action potential reaches end of axon, synaptic vesicles open and transmit neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters are chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neuron; they cross the synapse and bind with the receiving dendrites - Hubel & Wiesel (1960s) • Hypothesized that neurons each respond to a specific stimuli (known as feature detectors) • Experimented with cats: cats view simple visual stimuli (lines oriented in different ways, sometimes moving); found that some neurons did only respond to certain stimuli (diagnol lines) Three theories of how action potentials communicate stimuli to brain: - Specificity coding: representation in the brain of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to respond to specific stimulus - Population coding: representation of a particular object by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons; a large number of neurons firing - Sparse coding: When a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons remaining silent; small group of neurons firing - Localization of function: specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain - Cognitive functioning breaks down in specific ways when areas of the brain are damaged - Cerebral cortex (3-mm thick layer that covers the brain) contains mechanisms responsible for most of our cognitive functions - Language production is impaired by damage to Broca’s area • located in forntal lobe - Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wernicke’s area • located in temporal lobe 2 Monday, January 18, 2016 - Occipital lobe: vision - Parietal lobe: touch, temperature, pain - Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell - Frontal lobe: coordination of different information from senses - “When damage to one part of the brain causes function A to be absent while function B is present, and damage to another area causes function B to be absent while function A is present” shows that different parts of the brain are responsible for different functions • - MRI/ functional MRI (fMRI): measures blood flow in brain; increased blood flow implies more brain activity - Fusiform face area (FFA): responds specifically to faces; located in temporal lobe; damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) - Parahippocampal place area (PPA): responds specifically to places (indoor vs outdoors scenes); located in temporal lobe - Extrastriate body area (EBA): responds specifically to pictures of bodies and body parts - These functions were found using an fMRI; measuring blood flow while showing pictures of various stimuli - In addition to localization of function, specific functions are processed by many different areas of the brain - Many different areas may contribute to a function - May appear to contradict notion of localization of function, but ideas are complementary - While watching a rolling ball: color, location, depth, motion, and shape of ball are all interpreted by different brain areas - Neural networks: groups of neurons or structures that are connected together; can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 3 Monday, January 18, 2016 TED Talk: A Brain in a Supercomputer - Trying to build a realistic model of the human brain for three reasons: • it is essential to understand the human brain • we cannot use animal experimentation forever 2 billion people on Earth are affected by mental disorder; drugs used today are • empirical - Theory: Brain creates a version of the universe and projects it like a bubble all around us - Decisions are key support for our perceptual bubble - Anesthetics work by introducing “noise” into the brain so that neurons cannot communicate - Thousands of decisions are made about an areas depth, length, color, etc; most of these decisions are not seen by the eyes but inferred by the brain - The neocortex was formed in mammals to handle complex cognitive functions like parenting, emotions, and relationships - The human neocortex is 1000x larger than that of a mouse - The brain started to fold to create space for more cortical columns, creating ridges - New theory about Autism called the “intense world theory” suggests that neocortical columns are super reactive, so people with autism are capable of creating things we could hardly perceive; but problems in perception create symptoms of disease - Synapses form the circuit of brain/ fabric of the brain - Every neuron is different; every person’s connectivity of neurons is different - Neurons are being oriented differently in experiments; shows that circuitry changes but pattern of circuitry doesn’t change - Same pattern of circuitry in every member of a species, but vary across species (possibly why we can’t communicate with other species) - Calculating the circuitry of one neuron would require the computing power of one computer, so a supercomputer is used to simulate the circuitry of the whole brain 4 Monday, January 18, 2016 - When showing only the electrical signals in a simulation on a super computer, shapes can be seen in the cortical column that represent the objects being seen- these shapes create a picture that strongly resembles the universe YouTube Video: Lights, Camera, Action Potential - Information is perceived via five senses - Each neuron is connected to thousands of others, communicating using electrical and chemical signals - The axon sends information to the end regions of the cell called terminal buttons - The region between the cell body and the axon is termed the axon hillock - Each neuron holds an electrical charge, about -70mV in a resting state, created by ions inside and outside of cell - Na+ and Cl- ions are outside of the cell - K+ and negatively charged protein cells are inside of the cell - Ion channels act as gates so ions flow in and out of cell - Ion channels are usually closed, but can be opened when a message is received - Each neuron receives input from thousands of other neurons - Connection between two neurons is synapse - During action potential, neurotransmitter is released into the synapse and binds to receptors in the next neuron - The receptor might open an ion channel - The area around the ion channel might become more positively charged, making it an Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP) - The area can become more negative, making it an Inhibitory Post- Synaptic Potential (IPSP) - If the membrane reaches the threshold of excitation (minimum charge to trigger an action potential) at the axon hillock, an action potential is triggered - During an action potential, there is increased permeability to sodium, then to potassium 5 Monday, January 18, 2016 - The action potential propagates down the axon to the terminal buttons in an all-or- nothing fashion; meanings synapses cannot go only half way - Action potentials are brief but large reversals in membrane polarity - Action potentials cause calcium channels to open so that calcium comes into the cell, signaling neurotransmitter to be released via exocytosis, which bind to post-synaptic receptors of the next neuron 6 Monday, January 18, 2016 Chapter 2 - Cognitive neuroscience: the study of the physiological basis of cognition - Levels of analysis refers to the idea that a topic can be studied in a number of different ways, with each approach contributing to its own dimension to our understanding - Levels of analysis can be applied to learning the details of a car: the first levels is its performance, then the mechanism under the hood, then how the engine works - Neurons are cells that are the building blocks and transmission lines of the nervous system - Nerve net: believed to be a continuous network, like a highway system in which one street connects directly to another, but without stop signs or traffic lights; conducting uninterrupted signals - Golgi staining: developed by Camillo Golgi; a thin slice of brain tissue was immersed in a solution of silver nitrate; stained about 1% of cells so that structures could be distinguished - Ramon y Cajal: developed neuron doctrine: the idea that individual cells transmit signals in the nervous system, and that these cells are not continuous with other cells as proposed by the nerve net theory; he also found that: • There is a small gap between the end of a neuron’s axon and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron; called a synapse • Neurons are not connected indiscriminately to other neurons, but form connections only to specific neurons; this forms groups of interconnected neurons, which together form neural circuits • In addition to neurons in the brain, there are also neurons that are specialized to pick up information from the environment, such as neurons of the eye, ear, and skin; these neurons are called receptors and are similar to brain neurons in that they have an axon, but they have specialized receptors that pick up information from the environment - Cell body: metabolic center of the neuron - Dendrites: branch out from the cell body to receive signals from other neurons 7 Monday, January 18, 2016 - Axons: also called nerve fibers; usually long processes that transmit signals to other neurons - Edgar Adrian recorded electrical signals from single neurons using microelectrodes: small shafts of hollow glass filled with a conductive salt solution that can pick up electrical signals at the electrode tip and conduct these signals back to a recording device; still used by modern physiologists - Setup for recording a single neuron: two electrodes are recording electrode, with its recording tip inside the neuron, and the reference electrode, located some distance away so it is not affected by the electrical signals; the difference in charge between the recording and reference electrodes is fed into a computer and displayed on the computer’s screen - The difference between the two electrodes when the neuron is at rest is -70 millivolts; this value is the resting potential; the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside of the neuron while at rest - When a neuron is stimulated, a nerve impulse is transmitted down the axon - The charge inside the axon during action potential is +40 mV - Action potential lasts 1 millisecond (1/1000 of a second) - Neurotransmitters are released when the signals reach the synapse at the end of the axon; they make it possible for the signal to be transmitted across the gap that separates the end of the axon from the dendrite or cell body of another neuron - Principle of neural representation states that everything a person experiences is based not on direct contact with stimuli, but on representations in the person’s nervous system - Retina: the layer of neurons that lines the back of the eye - Visual cortex: the area at the back of the brain that receives signals from the eye - The Principle of Neural Representation says that everything we experience is the result of something that stands for that experience - Hubel & Wiesel found that each neuron in the visual area of the cortex responds to a specific type of stimulation presented to a small area of the retina; experimented on cats; called these neurons feature detectors because they responded to specific stimulus features such as orientation, movement, and length - Charles Gross recorded from single neurons in the monkey’s temporal lobe 8 Monday, January 18, 2016 - Hierarchical processing is progression from lower to higher areas of the brain - Sensory coding refers to how neurons represent various characteristics of the environment - The idea that an object could be represented by the firing of a specialized neuron that responds only to an object is called specificity coding - Population coding is the representation of a [articular object by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons - Sparse coding occurs when a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons remaining silent - Localization of function: specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain - Most cognitive functions are served by the cerebral cortex, which is a layer of tissue about 3 mm thick that covers the brain; the cortex is the wrinkled covering you see when you look at an intact brain - Early evidence of localization of function came from neuropsychology- the study of the behavior of people with brain damage - An early report of localization of function based on a stroke patient was Paul Broca’s proposal that an area in the left frontal lobe, now called Broca’s area, is specialized for speech; patient could only say the word tan - An area of the temporal lobe called Wernicke’s area functions to comprehend language - The occipital lobe is where the visual cortex is located; WWI soldiers with damage here were blind - The auditory cortex is in the upper temporal lobe and is responsible for hearing - The somatosensory cortex gets information from the skin and is located in the parietal lobe; responsible for perception of touch, pressure, and pain - The frontal lobe receives signals from all the senses and is responsible for coordinator of the senses, as well as higher cognitive functions like thinking and problem solving - Prosopagnosia: an inability to recognize faces - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): made it possible to create images of structures within the 9 Monday, January 18, 2016 - fMRI: functional MRI; enabled researchers to determine how various types of cognition activate different areas of the brain - fMRIs measure activity in voxels, which are small cube-shaped areas of the brain 2 or 3 mm on a side - 10


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.