Week 1 LIFE102
Week 1 LIFE102 Life 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week 1 Notes LIFE102 Chapter 1: Defining Biology Biology: study of life Biology studies life in all its forms at all levels o Organization levels o Time levels Biology is multidisciplinary; involving chemistry, physics, mathematics, and geology Biology is broad Life is both uniform and diverse Diversity can be used in taxonomy class Chapter 2: Chemical Context of Life What differentiates organisms is their molecular make up Element: substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reaction o Ex. Gold, copper, carbon, oxygen Compound: Two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio o Sodium chloride (NaCl) o Water (H20) 25 chemical elements are essential for life o 96% of living matter is made up of: Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen o Bulk elements are what we call the top 11 elements we need o The remaining elements we need make up less than 100 of a th percent. We call these trace elements Atom: smallest unit of an element o Protons (+) and neutrons (0) are located in the center (atomic nucleus) while electrons (-) are orbiting around the outside Dalton: weight of a proton and neutron Electrons have almost no weight Mass number, atomic weight= protons + neutrons Modified atoms o Ion- atom with an unpaired proton (+) or electron (-) o Isotopes- atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Some isotopes are unstable (radioactive) Release neutron- same element, different mass Release proton- new element Electrons are arranged in shells o Found at different differences to the nucleus o Can hold a max. # of electrons Shell 1: 2 electrons Shell 2&3: 8 Electrons How atoms fill their valence shells of electrons: o Strategy 1: Donate or accept an electron from another atom. Ionic bond: between oppositely charged ions, atom gives electron to other atom Cation: positive charge electron donor Anion: negative charge receiving Compounds/molecules Consist of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio Have characteristics from those of the individual elements o Strategy 2: Two atoms can share an electron pair- covalent bond The # of electrons in the valence shell determines an atoms behavior. Nobel gasses on the far right do not interact with others (see power point for visuals on interactions) 2 Polar covalent bond: electrons not equally shared between the two atoms and have a negative pull on one side and slightly positive charge on the other o Polar molecules attract and interact with one another weakly: Hydrogen bond o DNA is made up of polar covalent bonds. They are zipped together by hydrogen bonds Molecules react with each other Mass conservation law: all atoms present in the reactants are still present in the products (see power point for visuals on interactions) Chemical reactions are reversible Chemical equilibrium: when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction o There is no change in the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium 3
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