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Week 1 LIFE102

by: Sydney Dingman

Week 1 LIFE102 Life 102

Sydney Dingman
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

Covers the first week of lecture.
Attributes of Living Systems
Erik N Arthun
Class Notes
Biology, life




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week 1 Notes LIFE102 Chapter 1: Defining Biology  Biology: study of life  Biology studies life in all its forms at all levels o Organization levels o Time levels  Biology is multidisciplinary; involving chemistry, physics, mathematics, and geology  Biology is broad  Life is both uniform and diverse  Diversity can be used in taxonomy class Chapter 2: Chemical Context of Life  What differentiates organisms is their molecular make up  Element: substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reaction o Ex. Gold, copper, carbon, oxygen  Compound: Two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio o Sodium chloride (NaCl) o Water (H20)  25 chemical elements are essential for life o 96% of living matter is made up of:  Oxygen  Carbon  Hydrogen  Nitrogen o Bulk elements are what we call the top 11 elements we need o The remaining elements we need make up less than 100 of a th percent. We call these trace elements  Atom: smallest unit of an element o Protons (+) and neutrons (0) are located in the center (atomic nucleus) while electrons (-) are orbiting around the outside  Dalton: weight of a proton and neutron  Electrons have almost no weight  Mass number, atomic weight= protons + neutrons  Modified atoms o Ion- atom with an unpaired proton (+) or electron (-) o Isotopes- atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons  Some isotopes are unstable (radioactive)  Release neutron- same element, different mass  Release proton- new element  Electrons are arranged in shells o Found at different differences to the nucleus o Can hold a max. # of electrons  Shell 1: 2 electrons  Shell 2&3: 8 Electrons  How atoms fill their valence shells of electrons: o Strategy 1: Donate or accept an electron from another atom.  Ionic bond: between oppositely charged ions, atom gives electron to other atom  Cation: positive charge electron donor  Anion: negative charge receiving  Compounds/molecules  Consist of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio  Have characteristics from those of the individual elements o Strategy 2: Two atoms can share an electron pair- covalent bond  The # of electrons in the valence shell determines an atoms behavior.  Nobel gasses on the far right do not interact with others (see power point for visuals on interactions) 2  Polar covalent bond: electrons not equally shared between the two atoms and have a negative pull on one side and slightly positive charge on the other o Polar molecules attract and interact with one another weakly: Hydrogen bond o DNA is made up of polar covalent bonds. They are zipped together by hydrogen bonds  Molecules react with each other  Mass conservation law: all atoms present in the reactants are still present in the products (see power point for visuals on interactions)  Chemical reactions are reversible  Chemical equilibrium: when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction o There is no change in the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium 3


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