Class Note for MCB 320 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
ECOLMCB 320 and 320H Genetics Instructors Dr C William Birky Jr Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Lecturing on 0 Molecular genetics 0 Transmission genetics 0 Population and evolutionary genetics Dr Linda Restifo Division of Neurobiology Arizona Research Laboratories Lecturing on 0 Developmental genetics 0 Cancer genetics Teaching Assistants Gaby Wlasiuk Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Carlos Flores Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Mike Dellinger Dept of Molecular and Cellular Biology Course Procedures and Policies READ THE COURSE WEB SITE yes the WHOLE thing except for the schedule of lectures which isn t nished before Friday httpeebwebarizonaeducourseseco320indexhtm The Honors course web site deals only with things unique to 320H You are responsible for reading and knowing all the of the course procedures and policies times of exams policies on missed exams and assignments grading etc etc If you have questions read the web site before asking us Read the announcements every week most will be left on for only one week Web site will have grade tracker where you can see your grades Must have password write it on the student questionnaire Diversity and Uniformity of Life Take home lessons 0 Diversity of life is under appreciated especially for microorganisms 0 There is both great diversity and great uniformity in genetics 0 Diversity is seen especially in life cycles uniformity is seen especially in mitosis meiosis and molecular genetics Diversity and Uniformity of Life Two points 1 Diversity of life is underappreciated 2 Some aspects of genetics are highly diverse while others are nearly uniform among all organisms 1 Diversity of life Three major groups Eukarya cells have nuclei Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Bacteria AlthaEa Eukarya LJ gt3 Bya The rst CE 1119 rst cell Two different ways of showing same evolutionary relationships Root of the tree 2 common ancestor of all organisms Each of these three groups contains many species Diversity and Uniformity of Life Diversity of planktonic bacteria in 22litre water sample from an estuary in northeastern Massachusetts Anonymous PCR and sequencing of SSUrDNA of bacteria Results gave estimate of 4431113 species of bacteria Note the application of genetics to study the diversity of life and questions of ecology and evolution Morphological diversity limited a b Beam39gamma lesnhact na Actunolmcaema Other groups Deltav FpsiEmI Protecbactena Alpha Framebacteria Bmcphagaf F ch gtIgtach1rf Bauleruides Cyanobacteria Diversity of eukaryotes and their life cycles S Sexual only A Asexual only SA Sexual and asexual Possible locations of root 39 manom Banglapm cyarlllnpnyul alumninu Rad Ngaa Dlnomgelues atyhm s Perthw Clllilu Calpcnm EIIOWIHI Nvealalss SA A mpmulopnym Eunlgmalopny u cnmoplmn Pnuowymn Balidnpnyxu Stramenoplles nluomn macawquot mamma 7 Lnbynmhulld mmuummmas oomycem Dpalllum ltM yvspwu almoecm I am I SA Cryplomdl M A Ammo Chmmalvanlatas ll stoma 39udkomsv z g 4 s m Discicn slatas Excavatas unanimous Kinsman1M muommla Euglenl s core 1mm mm A l I l l l Momma Bulalamfeuu Wm unlimile l cnvmul unsound Anlmu 39l aimlemm39 Opislhakunls oxymonlas Wchomunm nypmnuugous Carpndkmans mlmmomdu Dlplomonn a mammal Germanium 2125 Cercozaa Hum S l A mums cnlavanmnbopnwes PMWKME uwpnrluu Fornmlnlku Polycyumu Aummrll Hhiza a my mmquot mm kuzuu m m m m u v M n N mum a may mu m mu mm w m mm uu Komodo Dragon Discicristates Hm maroonwas muommm Euglmlds Cm moms Mumsquot Oxymonms Tachomonm nypumumolas Cupcdkmunu Retortmound Diplomonaaa alum m I E hld Pm Cercozoa Hodroman thaunmonmsS A u 014 chlnrrmlopnylea 4 1 Nveolates pawn Pmtonwxldt cumquot romlmzu colpanm Polycystlnu Ethouomldi Acamnlrln Rhizuia m Manama H p I lop39vyus Mme Euwam ov wu ammoImam A Chvyzopnyuu I Wan i W 7 7 7 a PNEOP WI wmmm BOIIHOPW a cumu Diastoqu undo lls Ac nophryldl 1 mm I I I ll 63mquot 5 Opisthokanls i 7 Opalm I k 39 quot39 S BImoecIaI l D quotMolath l PM A pr who i l Armmom A Chmmalveolates V 749quot n F g x 5 m n 1 uhrulnr m Hrr munmumquot F I A inquot ul nunwulu Thu w u 1Vvxxuud llvvv m m mumquot NuI mu mm u39nJ uvuul MM 391 Lvnvll1n39lms yr zl39rwn mum am u n m an 1 mung n4 3951 rnvq xm quot a wnn nwwu mun mu m nu wuunv39 vw unlln39 ywy my w m V mm 7 ma wand Hmmnu u m m Tum u r can quotum quotum Jumwu rdkuv m H qu 1 0m0 sapiens Plantae Excavales Red Algae Cercozaa sSA quotA Ava dlea SAF I a Saramewcp es r Sthjkunts 39Unikonls Diversity of Organisms Most of the named groups of organisms actually include hundreds thousands or millions of different species Macroorganisms vs microorganisms Macroorganisms are some Animals some Fungi most Land Plants a few algae All the rest are microscopic microorganisms There are probably more described species of macroscopic organisms than of microscopic organisms Surveys of molecular diversity suggests that the majority of biological diversity is in the microorganisms There is evidence that many microscopic species haven39t been discovered or are known only from DNA sequences Many microscopic species that have been described haven39t been studied at the molecule level and put on the tree Organisms Used to Study Genetics 0 Most of What we know about genetics is based on a small number of model organisms 0 Most of these are macrooganisms 0 All are animals plants fungi or bacteria 0 Genomics sequencing complete genomes ie all the genes and other DNA in an organism is done mainly on organisms that are important for human health or food or are model systems Partial list of model organisms Homo sapiens us Mus musculus house mouse Drosophila melanogasler fruit fly Caenorhabdilis elegans a nematode Zea mays maize Arabidopsis lhaliana a cruciform plant Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker s yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast Neurospora crassa bread mold E 601139 an enteric bacterium Bacillus sublilis a spore forming bacterium Uniformity in Genetics Uniformity in genetics is seen in the following examples 0 Genes 2 base sequences in DNA molecules 0 One chromosome 2 one DNA molecule with many genes on it 0 Genetic code similar in all 0 Basic processes of DNA replication transcription translation 0 Some genes are found in all organisms 0 All eukaryotes have mitosis and mechanism is nearly identical 0 Meiosis is nearly identical in all eukaryotes that have it 0 All organisms have recombination due to crossingover and gene conversion although the mechanisms may differ in eukaryotes and prokaryotes Diversity in Genetics 0 Diversity in genetics is seen in the following examples 0 Diversity in sequences of genes The diversity shown in the trees is diversity of gene sequences All of this diversity can be seen in a single large gene eg SSU rDNA 0 Genome size varies ca 106 1011 bp 0 Number of genes varies ca 500 30000 0 Number of chromosomes varies 1 several hundred 0 Arrangement of genes on chromosomes 0 Number and kind of transposable elements and introns 0 Weird variations e g RNA editing the ciliate macronucleus imprinting Diversity in Genetics Diversity in genetics is also seen in life cycles Bacteria and Archaea 0 no mitosis but when cell divides partitions chromosome 1 copy to each daughter 0 no meiosis or fertilization but has several other ways of exchanging genes sex Diversity in Genetics Diversity in eukaryotic life cycles 0 asexual reproduction by mitosis 0 sexual reproduction by meiosis and fertilization 0 diverse life cycles with different combinations of these 0 most common life cycle includes haploid and diploid cells both of which reproduce asexually by mitosis with occasional sexual reproduction by fusion of haploids to start diploid phase followed by meiosis to produce haploids 0 some eukaryotes reproduce only sexually but how do our cells reproduce 0 some eukaryotes reproduce only asexually some in every major group except mammals and birds 0 sexual reproduction varies from extreme inbreeding mating with close relatives even with one39s self to outcrossing Eukaryotic Life Cycles Asexual life cycle mitosis Sexual life cycle meiosis syngamy EUKARYUTIC LIFE CYCLES N Rmeiosis72ll mitosis mitosis mitosis mitosi 1110515 quotquot110515 styngamyS QN syngamy 2N General most common eg SanaHarms Predominant Flow 99 animals N Rmeiosis 39N 2N mitosis mitosis mitosis mitosis mitosis mitosis NZsyngamy y 2 N QN Predominantly haploid eg cinemas Aselual common 99 some fungi N 2N N 4 meiosis 2N m J Diversity and Uniformity of Life Take home lessons 0 Diversity of life is under appreciated especially for microorganisms 0 There is both great diversity and great uniformity in genetics 0 Diversity is seen especially in life cycles uniformity is seen especially in mitosis meiosis and molecular genetics
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