Traditional World Music Reading Notes - Week 2
Traditional World Music Reading Notes - Week 2 MUSI 3583 503
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MUSI 3583 503
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 3583 503 at Oklahoma State University taught by Kunzel, Stephen N in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see World Traditional Music in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Traditional World Music - Week 2 Pt. 1 (Class 3: Fri 15 Jan 2016) Music of South Asia: Indian Classical Music Introduction – These terms have the following meanings: o South Asia – comprises the whole of the Indian sub- continent, including the modern nation-states of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka o Art music (classical music) – listened to for enjoyment, however, religious or spiritual connotations may exist Governed by the melodic systems of raga and the metrical systems of tala Music is taught orally and is rarely written down. North Indian Music (Hindustānī music) o Presented as it is currently still practiced in the region o Both vocal and instrumental, but not fundamentally different. However, both develop independently of one another. Khyal: North Indian Classical Singing 1.)One singing, others playing instruments 2.)The singer seems to lead the performance. The other performers probably play instruments. 3.)Ornamented, passionate, dramatic, repetitive, melancholy; these apply to the entire performance. 4.)Begins slowly, then speeds up. 5.)He uses several different pitches. Some of the low tones are similar to something that can be heard in Western music. 6.)Two drum sounds maintain a regular pattern. 7.)Possibly 4/4 Background: History, Religion, and Society History o Khyāl - the principal genre of vocal music performed today by classical musicians in North India o Origins in significant historical contexts Vocal Style o Khyāl originated as a classical genre in the mid-17th century, when it was taken up by musicians at the court of the Mughal emperors of Delhi. o Prior to that, it was a form of Muslim devotional music o Intensity of emotion and pain “pathos” o Goal of religious ecstasy o Highly ornate singing Dhrupad – emphasizes grandeur and rhythmic process o Still sung today, but rarely o originated at the court of a Hindu ruler, Man Singh Tomar of Gwalior, in the 15th century o Mīyān Tānsen - the most famous singer in the history of North Indian classical music; a number of ragas believed to have been invented by him Differences between the two styles is echoed in architectural style between the 15 century palace of Man Singh Tomar in th Gwalior, and the 17 century buildings of the Mughal emperors in Agra and Delhi. History of the Instruments Tambūrā – older instrument; long-necked lute; introduced to India by musicians from Iran and Central Asia o Originally used to play a melody o After 17 century, open strings were plucked by the artist with one hand, while the other hand supported the weight of the instrument o This is how it is used today, to produce a continuous drone chosen by the soloist Pakhāvaj – barrel-shaped drum generally used for accompanying classical music at that time Tablā – a pair of small vertical drums developed for accompanying classical music, probably in the Penjab region of N-W India o It is now used for accompanying most styles of North Indian classical music, both vocal and instrumental o Lighter tone higher pitch make it compatible with quieter instruments Religion and Music Religion plays a central role in South Asian culture Many musicians are Hindus Gharānās – houses associated with a particular musical ideology Rāgas are often regarded, especially by Hindu musicians, as spiritual beings, existing independently of the musician. Hindu = sound and performance very important o Form of meditation o Sacred chant Islam = music regarded as profane Sufi = music is considered a path to communion with the divine Traditional World Music Week 2 – Part 2 Music of South Asia: Indian Classical Music Social context of Indian classical music is complex and ever changing a. the relationship of soloists and accompanists as social categories b. the importance of oral transmission and heredity c. changes in the social status of music and musicians in the modern era Society I: Soloists and Accompanists o Music is essentially a solo performance by a melodic soloist accompanied by other musicians who play instruments o Vocalists are free to be creative, but accompanists are held to standards. Vocalists = artists, Accompanists = craftsmen o Hierarchy is a reflection of South Asian society o Since 20 century, the status of accompanists has become less rigid with accompanists allowed to be more creative o Soloists and accompanists come from separate musical lineages Society II: Oral Transmission and Heredity o Vidyadhar Vyas Third generation of his family to be a professional singer Grandfather was a temple singer, amateur sitar player His father trained under Vishnu Paluskar Music is passed down from generation to generation Music not written down Similar to the manner in which much knowledge is transmitted in South Asia Gharana – “household”, a lineage of musicians sharing a particular style and repertoire often associated with a particular court Usually founded by a single musician with exceptional talent First grows in the family, then begins to accept disciples from outside the family o Gwalior gharana Associated with the city of Gwailor, a powerful Hindu kingdom Associated with music as early as the 15 century Birthplace of Miyan Tansen lineage of khyāl singers founded by the brothers Haddu and Hassu Khan Ideas preserved by their many Hindu disciples unique and definitive style o Benaras gharana Network of Hindu families based in Benaras specializing not only in tablā but also pakhāvaj, sārangī, and dance each gharana has music unique to them, not shared with outsiders unique sound created by the positioning of instruments Society III: Changes in the Social Status of Music and Musicians o End of 19 century: court patronage comes to an end o 20 century: musicians seek alternate forms of employment o classical music becomes allied with Hindu culture o Increasing number of musicians are now from non- hereditary Hindu backgrounds o Decline of court patronage increases the importance of performing to a wider audience: wealthy urban middle class o Paṇḍit Vishnu Digambar Paluska Opened music colleges to public Used western models (textbooks) Classical music concerts Took music out of courts o 1950: artists begin to travel outside of India media exposure creates household names International audience Instruments and Ensembles o Most important: the human voice Some instruments emulate the human voice The Performers o Vidyadhar Vyas (singer) Head of the dept. of music, University of Mumbai Guest lecturer internationally Taught by his father o Sandip Bhattacharya (tablā) Born in Benaras Studied table with a representative of the famous Benaras gharānā of tablā, Paṇḍit Ishwarlal Misra Has accompanied many famous musicians
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