Class Note for NATS 101 at UA 2
Class Note for NATS 101 at UA 2
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Forces that affect the wind Write down the three main forces that affect the wind Forces that affect the Wind Pressure gradient force PGF risobars f o Affects Wind speed 333 g accelerates air from region H 9 9 L of high to low pressure 1 Affects wind direction 9 directs wind towards low quot pressure regions Forces that affect the Wind Coriolis force CF turns wind to the right in 900 b L Pep the northern hemisphere m swimd E turns wind to the left in 908 b7 VFW E the southern hemisphere 12 CF HCF C does not affect wind 3 mmmmmmmmmmmmm mom speed only direction Go to Visualization gt Forces that affect the Wind Friction o opposes the wind 0 slows wind down decelerates wind 0 reduces the CF 6 0ij C F F ction CF H Forces that affect the Wind Idealized surface flow in the northern hemisphere NH 0 Clockwise and outward around a high Counterclockwise L and inward around a ow Forces that affect the Wind Idealized surface flow in the southern hemisphere SH 0 Counterclockwise H and outward around a high o Clockwise and inward around a low Forces that affect the Wind What do the northern and southern hemisphere flows have in common SH NH Divergence wind moves away from high J 0 Convergence wind moves towards low Vertical motions Where does the air go that heads into a low pressure center at the surface that heads away from a surface high I msari Vertical Motions Vertical circulation cell Air converging at surface balanced by air diverging at upper levels Northern hemisphere example Divergence Convergence Vertical motion much slower than horizontal motion Convergence a quot quot95 4 or 1 P I I J Divergence Surface Mapiy g mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm in Vertical Motions Northern hemisphere example Vertical circulation cell adjustments Dlveigente What if upper level divergence is greater 1 Surface low will increase 2 Surface PGF will increase 3 Surface convergence will increase Analogous adjustment if surface divergence is greater Eiverga ice 10 Vertical motions What about upward directed PGF Why doesn t air accelerate upwards Air column Hydrostatic equilibrium Upward directed PGF is balanced by weight of air in column No net vertical acceleration Grav Atmosphere approximates hydrostatic balance Exceptions violent i 7 thunderstormstornadoes WWW quot 11 Characterizing Winds Winds are characterized by Direction Speed Gustiness Cup anemometer spee Mons Yhamm ammms Wind vane direction 12 Characterizing Winds Describing wind direction oTypically given as direction from which wind is blowing and measured using a wind vane May be sensed Smells from one direction Direction a flag is blowing May be given in relation to Onshorewm landscape 7 i Onshore winds offshore winds Upslope winds downslope winds 13 Characterizing Winds Describing wind speed Measured precisely using an anemometer May be sensed Swaying of trees Pressure against your face Beaufort Wind Scale estimates wind speed from surface observations Appx F p 438 14
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