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Psych 221 (Social Psych) | Lecture 3 notes | 1/19/16

by: Gabriella Morales

Psych 221 (Social Psych) | Lecture 3 notes | 1/19/16 PSYCH 221

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Psychlogy > PSYCH 221 > Psych 221 Social Psych Lecture 3 notes 1 19 16
Gabriella Morales
Penn State
GPA 3.3

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Intro to Social Psychology
Nicholas Pearson
Class Notes
SocialPsych, SocialPsychology, social, Psychology, psych, Psych221, PSU, PennState, PennStateUniversity, Nicholas, Pearson, NicholasPearson
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Morales on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 221 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nicholas Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Psych Chapter 2 - Methodology 1/19/16 2:30 PM Major assumption of social psychology  Questions about social influence can be studied scientifically  Example o Does watching violent TV increase aggressive behavior Why do we need to talk about Methodology?  As with any academic discipline the purpose of conducting research is tog ain knowledge o How do we gain the knowledge? o How do we share that knowledge? o What do we do with that knowledge?  The key is consistency Figuring Out The Question  Questions about social influence can be studied scientifically  Ex: o Does watching violent TV increase aggressive behavior? o First step; Where did we come up with this question How do we get to the question?  Personal experiences  Observations of others  Something we read  Some social issue that's important to us  Previous research Hypothesis Generation  Social Psychology (as with all academic disciplines) is cumulative o We "cannibalize" previous theories and research o See what fits and what doesn’t fit in your research from other research  Social Psychologists use their personal experiences to generate ideas 3 Types of Experimental Methods  Observational Method o Question answered: Description o Observing reality in some form and describing it o How many people walk on the right side  Correlational Method o Question answered: Prediction o Measure at least 2 variables and measure between them  Experimental Method o Question answered: causality  Ethnography o Researcher observes a group from within o Tries not to influence the behavior of the group o Research at a bar Trained Observers  o Unobtrusively watch subjects "from outside" o Use a coding scheme to record behavior o Research from religious group  Archival Analysis  Look at written/recorded record of a group of people to answer a question  Race relations, and what it was like 100 years ago The (+) and (-) of Observaional Method  (+) o Often the easiest and cheapest way to gather info (just sit there, watch, and record)  (-) o Some behaviors are hard to observe o The observer can't always be unobtrusive o Consistency is coding and hard to get Correlational Method  Systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables  Surveys o Ask people about their attitudes or behaviors  Correlate Observations o Observe behaviors and see how they relate to other variables What is Correlation? Correlation coefficient ranges from -1 to +1  Positive (+) correlation indicates that as one variable of interest increases, the other increases  Negative (-) correlation indicates that as one variable of interest increases, the other decreases  Very small (+ or -) or zero correlation ….. *Finish* Example:  Suppose correlation between watching violent TV and aggression is .30  What does this mean?  Moderately strong Correlation DOES NOT mean causation  Even if variables A and B are perfectly correlated, we cannot determine their causal relationship  Three possibilities o A causes B o B causes A o Third variable, C is causing both A and B Example:  TV and aggressive  Exercise and heart disease, strong negative correlation  Self-Esteem and Drug abuse  College student who had sex at least once a week were less likely to get colds  Adults who watch public TV have sex more often than people who do not Experimental Method  Often thought of as the prototypical "Lab Experiment"  Question answered: Causality  Experimenter alters one variable to see what affect it has on another o One variable is "manipulated" to see how an observed variable is changed Independent variable (IV)  What the researcher "manipulates" (changes) Dependent Variable (DV)  What the researcher measures to see if the change in the I.V. had any affect How can we tell if an Independent Variable significantly influences a dependent variable  Probability Level (p-value)  What is the probability that the experimental results would occur by chance if there was actually no relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable  P < .05 o The probability that the results obtained could be observed by chance, and be wrong is less than 5 out of 100. o P<.05 is the standard cutoff of significance Inferentaial Stats  P-value are one example of inferential statistics o Inferential- meaning we infer some type of relationship  The research that we will learn about in this class is all considered good because the results obtained meet the field's statistical standards How do we know we are conducting a good experiment?  Questions of Validity o Are we manipulating only what we want to manipulate o Are we measuring what we want to measure o Are out results applicable to a wide range of situations Internal Validity  Internal Validity o Keep all variables constant but change the independent variable (and only the independent variable) in a predictable way to see how it influences the dependent variable Internal Validity ( Terms we should know)  What do we mean by "experimental condition"? o Different levels of the independent variable  You will often hear something like, "This was a 2 X 3between subjects design" o Each numeral represent each independent variable, and o This tells you that there are 2 independent variables o One IV has 2 levels o Other IV has 3 levels (ex, happy , sad, and neutral) This was a 2 X 3 between subjects design"  Between subjects design - means each participant was only exposed to one set of conditions  Within subjects design - Means each participant was exposed to all of the conditions , all 6 conditions would be covered  Mixed design- means each participant was exposed to all levels of one IV, but only one level of the other IV  Random Assignment to Condition o A way to ensure that it's not something about your participants that is causing the results o Each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to a particular condition  Control Group o Idea of a group of participants where the manipulation is with- held , given no manipulation


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