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Bio 141| Lecture 2 | Hierarchy of Organization | (1/13/16)

by: Gabriella Morales

Bio 141| Lecture 2 | Hierarchy of Organization | (1/13/16) Bio 141

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Biology > Bio 141 > Bio 141 Lecture 2 Hierarchy of Organization 1 13 16
Gabriella Morales
Penn State
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Covering lecture 2
Biology and Physiology
Dr. Jenelle Malcos
Class Notes
Bio141, Biology, Bio, JenelleMalcos, BiologyandPhisiology, PSU, PennState, PennStateUniversity
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Morales on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Jenelle Malcos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biology and Physiology in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Hierarchy of Organization 1/13/16 -Body is organized into interacting organ systems -Organ systems start with molecules that make up cells that make up tissues that make up organs Chemical Elements -All elements are made of atoms -Atoms are made of subatomic particles  Protons, Neutrons, and electrons  Elements are identified by the number of protons (atomic number)  Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons Ions are atoms or molecules that have uneven number of protons and electrons  Some atoms give up electrons easily > cations (+charge)  Some atoms accept electrons easily > anions (- charge)  Ions can also be complex compounds (bicarbonate, HCO3-) Example Question: A sodium atom has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons are present if the atom is NOT an ion? A 10 B 7 C 11 Correct Answer D 8 There are four major categories of organic molecules : 1 Lipids 2 Proteins 3 Carbohydrates 4 Nucleic Acid  Organic molecules contain carbon  Monomer: Single molecule that can be added to make a polymer  Polymer: Molecule containing many repeating molecular units (monomers) Carbohydrates:  Important function= serves as an energy source  Mostly an immediate energy source of glucose but can be stored as well Ex: o Carbohydrate Monomer: Glucose & Fructose o Carbohydrate Polymer: Starch > found in plants (storage) Cellulose > found in plants (structure, makes up cell wall) Glycogen > found in animals ( storage, commonly stored in muscles for energy terms of exercise )  Enzymes (proteins) : Used to breakdown sugar in the process of cellular respiration to release energy Lipids:  Three main types: A Triglycerides B Phospholipids C Steroids  Triglycerides o Function in energy storage and insulation o Consists of 3 repeating units o Has fatty acids ( long carbon chain that is like a monomer ) o Also has glycerol ( holds fatty acid chain together ) o Is an alternative energy source and important for insulation  Difference in types of bonds between carbons: o Single:  Saturated lipid chain  Saturated fats are found in meat and dairy, contribute to cardiovascular disease o Double / Triple bonds:  Unsaturated lipid chain  Unsaturated fats are found in plant oils, fish, avocados, source of omega fatty acids (essential)  Phospholipids o Contributes to the structure of ell organelle membranes o Consists of fatty acids, phosphate group & glycerol o Fatty Acids = Hydrophobic, Neutral o Phosphate group: Hydrophillic o Can interact with water, while at the same time be repelled from water based on the phospholipid's heads  Vocab: Hydrophillic = Attracted to water  Hydrophobic = Un-attracted to water  Steroids o Found in membranes and as hormones  Proteins o Polymers of amino acid monomers o Sequence of amino acid is called primary stricter o Primary structures fold to make a final protein shape o Proteins have diverse functions  Ex: Proteins control many reactions that help maintain homeostasis


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