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Bio 141 | Lecture 3 | Nucleic Acid | 1/15/16

by: Gabriella Morales

Bio 141 | Lecture 3 | Nucleic Acid | 1/15/16 Bio 141

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Biology > Bio 141 > Bio 141 Lecture 3 Nucleic Acid 1 15 16
Gabriella Morales
Penn State
GPA 3.3

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Lecture 3
Biology and Physiology
Dr. Jenelle Malcos
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Morales on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Jenelle Malcos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biology and Physiology in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Nucleic Acids Friday, January 15, 2016 9:07 AM  Nucleic Acids function in the energy transport (ATP), hereditary (DNA), and protein synthesis (RNA) -ATP is a nucleic acid monomer consisting of adenine, a sugar, and three phosphates -ATP= Adenine Tri-phosphate -Breaking down ATP= ATP Hydrolysis  1 base, 2 sugar, 3 adenine  When giving away an adenine, becomes Adenine Di-Phosphate DNA polymer consists of four different nucleoties (monomer)  Adenine (same as ATP with only one P), thymine, guanine, and cytosine  Stored in the nucleus  Adenine matches with Thymine  Guanine matches with Cytosine Gene expression is the process of turning DNA into proteins  Nucleotides are arranged into genes in our DNA  Transcription > Makes a working copy of the gene (RNA)  Translation > Translates the nucleotide to amino acids  This process is regulated to produce necessary proteins for physiological process Steps of Gene Expression: 1 Nucleus > production of RNA from DNA (transcription) 2 Endoplasmic Reticulum > RNA is translated to amino acids (proteins) 3 Golgi body packages the proteins for transport 4 Some proteins stay in the cell, others travel to different cells via "bubbles" (vesicles) Cellular Structure A cell is composed or organelles (Worksheet 2 & Additional Slides) Plasma Membrane is made of phospholipids and cholesterol with membrane proteins  Lipids cause the bilayer to be hydrophobic AND hydophillic  Membrane is selectively permeable because of it being both hydrophobic & philic o Few molecules can pass through the membrane o Require membrane proteins to control what enters and exits the cell o Uncharged = Hydrophobic / Non-Polar o Have to be very small molecule & UNCHARGED to travel through this very selectively permeable membrane o Proteins will help molecules enter and exit Transport across a membrane  Transport of molecules across a membrane can be passive (not require energy) or active (require energy)  Diffusion is an example of passive transport  Diffusion - Movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration  In order for passive transport to work, you MUST have a concentration gradient o Results movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration Types of Passive Transport Across a Membrane  Simple Diffusion: Molecule that is able to travel through a membrane (small, uncharged)  Any molecule that is not small and charged needs a protein to travel through the membrane  Some channels proteins are open all the time (leaky channels)  Channel mediated: Creates a channel in the membrane (tunnel) that a molecule can travel through ; molecule is still moving from high to low  Two major types of channels ; Gated & Non-Gated  Non gated = Leaky , open all the time  Some channels proteins are only open at certain times (Gated channels)


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