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Chapter 2: Theories of Development

by: Esther So

Chapter 2: Theories of Development PSY 245

Marketplace > Mercer University > Psychlogy > PSY 245 > Chapter 2 Theories of Development
Esther So

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These notes cover material from chapter 2 and focus on theories of development.
Lifespan Psychology
Dr. McCain
Class Notes
Psychology, Theories of Development, lifespan psychology, developmental psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esther So on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at Mercer University taught by Dr. McCain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Psychology in Psychlogy at Mercer University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 2: Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories: theories proposing that developmental change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior ­ Sigmund Freud o Argued that personality has three parts  Id: the part of the personality that comprises a person’s basic sexual and  aggressive impulses; it contains the libido and motivates a person to seek  pleasure and avoid pain  Operates at unconscious level  Contains libido – a person’s basic sexual and aggressive impulses  Ego: the thinking element of personality  Develops first 2 to 3 years of life  Ego’s job is to keep id satisfied  Ex: When a person is hungry, the id demands food immediately  Superego: the part of the personality that is the moral judge  Contains rules of society and develops near the end of early  childhood, at about the age of six o Proposed a series of psychosexual stages through which a child moves in a fixed  sequence determined by maturation      Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory ­ Psychosocial stages: Erikson’s eight states, or crises, or personality development in  which inner instincts interact with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality  Chapter 2: Theories of Development Learning Theories ­ Classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov o Unlearned  Unconditioned stimulus – one that comes unconditionally, naturally, and  automatically triggers a response  Unconditioned response – the response that occurs naturally in reaction  to the unconditioned stimulus  Food  salivation o Learned  Conditioned stimulus – the conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral  stimulus that after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus  eventually comes to trigger a conditioned stimulus  Conditioned response – the learned response to the previously neutral  stimulus Chapter 2: Theories of Development  Smell of pasta  salivation ­ “Little Albert”: John B Watson o Watson portrayed that he could use to principles of classical conditioning to cause an infant to develop a new emotional response to a stimulus o “Little Albert” was exposed to loud noises while he played with a white rat;  Albert learned to fear the rat and other white and fuzzy objects. ­ Operant conditioning: B.F Skinner o Reinforcement: anything that follow a behavior that causes it to be repeated  Positive ­ a consequence that follows a behavior that increases the changes that the behavior will occur again  Ex: buying a scratch ticking and winning $100  Negative ­ when an individual learns to perform a specific behavior in  order to cause something unpleasant to stop  Taking a dose of cough medicine to stop coughing o Punishment: anything that follows a behavior and causes it to stop  Positive – presenting an unfavorable outcome or event following an  undesirable behavior  Ex: Driving over the speed limit and getting a ticket  Negative – taking something desirable away to reduce the occurrence of a  particular event  Ex:  Taking phone away for texting during class o Shaping: Gradually molding or training and individual to perform a specific  response by reinforcing any responses that are similar to the desired response. o Extinction: the gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated reinforcement  ­ Social ­ Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura o Observational learning: learning that results from seeing a model reinforced or  punished for a behavior o Dependent on four factors  Attention: observer must be able to pay attention  Memory: observer must be able to remember  Physical capabilities: observer must be physically able to imitate  Motivation: observer must be motivated to perform it on their own o Self – efficacy: expectancies about what we can and cannot do Cognitive Theories: theories that emphasize mental processes in development, such as logic and language ­ Jean Piaget o Scheme: an internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a  procedure to use in a specific circumstance  Ex: Stopping at a red light o Assimilation: the process of using a scheme to make sense of an event or  experience  Ex: all animals that have 4 legs are dogs Chapter 2: Theories of Development o Accommodation: changing a scheme as a result of some new information  Ex: baby grasps a square object for the first time, next time he reaches for  the square object, his hands will be more appropriately bent ot grasp it o Equilibration: the process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to  create schemes that fit the environment o Stages of Cognitive Development Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth – 2 years  Sensorimotor ­ Object permanence Experiencing the world through  ­ Stranger anxiety senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) 2 years – 6 years Preoperational ­ Pretend play ­ Egocentrism Representing things and words with  images; using intuitive rather than  logical reasoning 7 years to 11 years Concrete operational ­ Conservation Thinking logically about concrete  ­ Mathematical  events; grasping concrete analogies,  transformations and performing arithmetical  operations 12 years – adulthood Formal operational ­ Abstract logic Abstract thinking ­ Potential for mature moral  reasoning ­ Vygotsky’s Socio­Cultural Theory: Vygotsky’s view that complex forms of thinking  have their origins in social interactions rather than in an individual’s private explorations o Scaffolding  To create an appropriate scaffold, the adult must gain and keep the child’s  attention o Zone of proximal development  Vygotsky used this term to signify tasks that are too hard for the child to  do alone but that he can manage with guidance ­ Informational – Processing Theory: a theoretical perspective that uses the computer as  a model to explain how mind manages information o Sensory Memory: When you experience language allow you to recognize the  pattern of sounds as word o Short­Term Memory: The component of memory system where all information  is processed o Long­Term Memory: The component of the system where information is  permanently stored Biological Theories  ­ Behavioral Genetics: the study of the role of heredity in individual differences o Heredity affects a broad range of traits and behaviors including intelligence,  shyness, and aggressiveness o IQ scores of identical twins are more strongly correlated than fraternal twins Chapter 2: Theories of Development o Individual’s genetic makeup influences the environment in which they are  developing ­ Ethology: a perspective on development that emphasizes genetically determined survival  behaviors presumed to have evolved through natural selection ­ Sociobiology: the study of society using the methods and concepts of biology; when used by developmentalists, an approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival Bronfenbrenner’s Biological Theory ­ Biological Theory: Bronfenbenner’s theory that development in terms of relationships  between individuals and their environments or interconnected contexts ­ The context of development are like circles within circles Chapter 2: Theories of Development Theory Main Idea Strengths  Weaknesses Freud Personality develops in  Emphasizes the  Sexual feelings are not as  five stages from birth to  importance of experiences  important in personality  adolescence; in each stage, in infancy and early  development as Freud  the need for physical  childhood; provides  claimed pleasure is focused on a  psychological explanations differed part of the body for mental illness ***Id, Ego, Superego Erikson Personality develops  Helps explain the role of  Describing each period in  through eight life crises  culture in personality  terms of a single crisis is  across the entire lifespan;  development; important in  probably an  a person finishes each  lifespan psychology;  oversimplification.  crises with either a good or useful description of major poor resolution themes of personality  development at different  stages Pavlov’s Classical  Learning happens when  Useful in explaining how  Explanation of behavior  Conditioning neutral stimuli become so  emotional responses such  change is too limited to  strongly associated with  as phobias are learned  serve as comprehensive  natural stimuli that they  theory of human  elicit the same response development Skinner’s operant  Development involves  Basis of many useful  Humans are not as passive  conditioning theory behavior changes that are  strategies for managing  as Skinner claimed; the  shaped by reinforcement  and changing human  theory ignores hereditary,  and punishment behavior cognitive, emotional, and  social factors in  development Bandura’s social­learning  People learn from models;  Helps explain how models Does not provide an  theory  what they learn from a  influence behavior;  overall picture of  Chapter 2: Theories of Development model depends on how  explains more about  development they interpret the situation  development than other  cognitively and  learning theories do  emotionally because of addition of  cognitive and emotional  factors Piaget’s theory of  Reasoning develops in  Helps explain how  Stage concept may cause  cognitive development four universal stages from  children of different ages  adults to underestimate  birth through adolescence;  think and act on the world children’s reasoning  the child builds a different  abilities; there may be  kind of scheme in each  additional stages in adult  stage hood Informational Processing  Encoding  Storage   Helps explain how much  Much more complex;  Theory Retrieval processes change information people of  theory doesn’t provide an  with age causing change in different ages can manage  overall picture of  memory function; these  at one time and how they  development changes occur because of  process it; provides a  both brain maturation and  useful framework for  practice  studying individual  differences in people of  the same age group Vygotsky’s Sociocultural  Emphasizes linguistic and  Incorporates group  Insufficient evidence to  Theory social factors in cognitive  learning processes into  support most ideas development explanations of individual  cognitive development


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