Survey of American History
Survey of American History 1903
Arkansas Tech University
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
History 1903 Dr. Pearson Lecture 3 The third great empire established in the new world was the French. Jacques Cartie was their explorer and he wanted to find the Northwest Passage. The Northwest Passage was the idea that there was a waterway through the new world. Instead of the passage, he found the St. Laurence River Valley. Cartie followed it to where modern day Quebec, Canada is. He eventually received permission to establish a settlement. It failed because it was established with convicts, it was cold, and there was mutiny. France did not establish a colony till Samuel De Champlain. In 1609, Champlain received permission from the king to establish a colony and have a monopoly on the fur trade. He established it in Quebec and later Montreal. He wanted to establish it based on the fur trade with the Indians. By the time Champlain came, European diseased had killed most Indians up in Canada. His business motto was “Let the Indians remain Indians” . The reasoning for this was because they could kill and make high quality fur. Champlain encouraged his traders to change to accommodate the Indian, like learn their language and culture. He also told his men to give the chiefs tons of gifts and to make friends with him and try to marry the chiefs daughter. This would keep strong ties with the tribe and the traders. This was very different from the Spanish approach, who wanted the Indians to become like Spanish. The only thing that Champlain insisted on is that the Indians hate the British. The French mainly did business with the Heron. The Herons became friends with the French and then proceeded to introduce them to their Indian allies. Champlain was very strict on who he let immigrate into the New France. To come to Canada you had to have a letter saying that you were a good person and a good citizen. At its height there were only 60thousand French citizens in New France. Yet the influence of the French spread all over Canada and eventually down to the Gulf of Mexico. The English were also looking for the Northwest passage. They were the second big power in the New World in 1497. John Cabot was an Italian navigator. He was supported by the king and found Newfoundland. Then he traveled up towards Canada and Maine. He got lost at sea on his second voyage. England did not attempt another voyage for 85 years. In those 85 years, King Henry married Catharine the princess of Spain when they were both young. Catharine never had a son so Henry wanted a divorce. Catharine was the niece of the Pope so the Pope did not agree to the divorce. Henry the 8 wanted to marry one of his mistresses, Anne Boleyn. Because the pope would not let Henry divorce Catharine, Henry left the Catholic Church and started his own church, the Church of England. He named himself the head of the church and the first thing he said was that Catharine and him were divorced. This started a landside. This started the cold war which lasted 50 years and almost started a civil war between the English people. The civil war was between the Mary (Queen Catharine’s st daughter) and Elizabeth the 1 (Anne Boleyn’s daughter). In the 1580’s, Richard Hakluyt wrote a book called “Discourses on Western Planting”. This pamphlet became an argument on why England should colonize the New World. He said that it would first stop the Catholic faith from spreading. Second it would be a way to drain off the excess people in the city. He also thought it would be a revenue source. It would also be a way to keep an eye on the Spanish. Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a colony called Roanoke. The first attempt failed because he brought adventurers, not people who just wanted to colonize. He wanted to be an English modern day Cortez. He left when he was about to face a mutiny. The second attempt was in Virginia but was still named Roanoke. It also failed because a war between Spain and England broke out. When the war started a ship from Roanoke had been sent back to England to get more supplies. But they were not allowed to leave for three years because they didn’t want the ship to be captured by the Spanish Armada. When the ship finally did return in 1591 everyone and everything was gone. Coratian was the only proof that someone was there. It is know as the “lost colony”. Walter Raleigh had personal funned both failed trips. It showed England that no one person or small group could profit from colonization. In 1604 a joint stock company, London Company, sold stock to investors. In 1607, the London Company sailed three ships up the Chesapeake bay, up the James River, and established Jamestown in honor of King James II of England. This was the first permanent English colony. They established it in a swamp. Out of the 112 men that were brought to Jamestown only 12 were labors. They others listed their jobs a “gentlemen” also known as soldiers. They were not workers. The men who came to Jamestown were mostly gentlemen/soldiers. There were very few farmers, carpenters. It was hard for them to survive. Jamestown was lucky because they quickly made contact with the Powhatan Confederacy. Powhatan was anxious to be friends with the English to establish a trade relationship in exchange for steel. All of the tools that the Indians made were from stone. The problem with this, is that it was easily broken. They wanted what we would think of as a butchers knife. One of the most popular trading items was a copper pot. Indians loved soup, but it was hard to make without a pot and the supplies that they had available. The British traded for food. The holy trinity of Indian agriculture was corn, beans, and squash. They had different verities of the plants (squash, pumpkins, lima beans, and green beans). The British thought that they were cultural elites, who were too good to grow and harvest of their own food. The British soon demanded tribute from the Indians. When the Indians did not give them what they wanted, the British began to kill, burn, and destroy them and their homes. By 1609 there was a full blow war. John Smith was out patrolling and got captured by Powhatan’s half brother, Opechancanough. Opechancanough was captured some time before by the Spanish. He was brought to Spain and was taught Spanish so that he could become a translator. When he was brought back he ran away back to Virginia. Opechancanough hated the English and he planned to kill Smith. Just at the last minute, Pocahontas jumped in front of smith to save him. Not out of love but probably as a political theatre. Meaning that the whole thing was staged. This would be a benefit to stop the war and start trading again. The Indians wanted to trade items as a way to be a middle man to sell to other Indians for profit. When John Smith got back to Jamestown he made the policy “You don’t work, you don’t eat”. This meant that everyone had to help with all the work. The fort was finally completed because of this. In 1609, Smith was badly burned and had to return to England to heal. In the winter of 1609-1610, the gentlemen went back to their old ways. They started raiding Indian tribes. This time the Indians laid siege to Jamestown. They made it dangerous to leave the fort. There was around 500 men in the fort at the beginning of the winter. Diseases spread, no running water, starvation, they were very unhygienic, and the winter was extremely cold. This became known as the “winter of starving times”. In April of 1610 when the supply ships arrived there was only 60 people left. There is proof of cannibalism. In 1610 there was another period of peace that lasted about 10 years. Jamestown was a corporate colony, there to make a profit for the London Company. John Rolfe noticed that the Indians liked to smoke. The Indian tobacco was way too hard though. In 1612, Rolfe started to experiment with tobacco. In 1616, he planted what he thought would be the best tobacco yet. It ended up selling like crazy in Europe. The people of Jamestown started to plant tobacco everywhere possible. This demand of tobacco made it a staple crop. It became so valuable it became a money source. Tobacco led to the start of the plantation agriculture (cheap labor). Cheap labor was needed because it needed a lot of people, maximized profits, and was a labor intensive crop. There was several steps to go from seed to supply. It starts in a “hot house” where each seed is planted in its own pot to germinate. Then after it germinates it has to be planted by hand in the field. Then watch it grow for months. Every flower bud has to be cut off so it doesn’t reproduce. For months farmers watch the plant and cut off the flower buds. At harvest time each leaf has to be cut by hand. The leaves are then put in a tobacco barn where it has to be cured. Farmers got indentured servants for cheap labor. They were not slaves. They were contract workers. They signed a contract that said they would work for free passage and freedom dues for four to seven years. A freedom due usually consisted of new clothes, land, seed, live stock, and sometimes more money. The things a person would need to start their own farms. While they were indentured servants they did not get paid, they only got room and board. The servants were not slaves but they were treated like they were. They were at their master’s mercy; he could do whatever he wanted. Indentured servants became popular in Jamestown because of the head right system. It was instated in 1618, it was there to attract a better kind of colonist to Jamestown. It said if you had the money to buy a share of the company or buy a ticket to Jamestown through the London Company, you would get 50 acres. For every servant you brought with you, you would get an extra 50 acres. In the year 1619, a Dutch war ship showed up to sell 20 African servants. When the 20 Africans were sold they were not initially seen as slaves, but as indentured servants. As time passed, tobacco prices dropped, people in Jamestown were in deep dept, this is when the colonist became scared, greedy, and then pettie. They began to cut labor cost 20%-30%of the servants die because of the climate. So they were out about 60 pounds of tobacco per servant. The Africans were different, they weren’t Christians, didn’t speak the language, different values and culture. The masters began to keep the Africans and not pay them. They justified it because God marked them as black because they were bad. They bore the “Mark of Ham”. Slavery was justified by their fear. Over the years slavery grew as a way of free labor.
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