Geog.1200 week 1 notes
Geog.1200 week 1 notes GEOG 1200
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nora Bray on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1200 at Ohio University taught by Timothy Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Section 1: Intro, main themes and thematic structure The nature of geography Unifying themes in geography World-systems analysis Development and underdevelopment in the World-Economy A. The nature of geography Defined by its mode of analysis United by a “spatial” perspective Geography as “landscape analysis” Two major subdivisions: o Physical geography o Human geography B. The Cultural Landscape “Structural” o The human “imprint” on the physical landscape o Shaped by cultural “values” and traditions o Focus is on the “built environment” “Post-Structural” o A stage upon which societal struggles are played out o The spaces in which multiple discourses are materialized o Shaped by struggles by struggles involving race, class, gender, power, etc. Landscape as a “Stage” o Unifying Themes 1. Location a. Absolute b. Relative 2. Place and Space a. Distribution/Density 3. Human/Environment Interaction a. Three Historical “Models”: Environmental Determinism (pre- 1940) “Possibilism” (WWII -1980s) Environmental Perception (Present) 4. Movement a. Relocation Diffusion b. Expanision Diffusion Hierarchical Contagious 5. Regions a. Region: a “bounded segment of earth space” (Ostergen and Le Bosse’) b. Historically, a central concept in the discipline of geography employed to delimit and define spatial differentiation c. But the term means different things to different people; all types of regions are products of human reasoning, so they are often culturally/socially constructed 6. Types of Regions: a. Instituted regions Created by authorities within some organization (governments, businesses, etc.) Created mainly for administrative purposes (planning; collection data or revenue, etc.) Boundaries of such regions are clearly demarcated and are usually agreed upon by everyone Instituted regions often consist of nested hierarchies (e.g. federal, state, and local political boundaries in the USA) b. Perceptual Regions Created informally without “official” sanction by people within a community or outside of it The “boundaries” of such regions are socially constructed and therefore subject to debate and continuous reinterpretation Boundaries are often “imagined” or “internally perceived” in the minds of inhabitants based on real or perceived commonalities (e.g. language, religion, ethnicity) c. World-systems analysis A holistic historical social science approach to understanding societal change Developed by political scientist Immanuel Wallerstein in the 1970s Concerned with the nature, development and structure of the world capitalist economy (“historical capitalism”) Based on 3 different research traditions: 1. French Annales School of History History from the “bottom up” Everyday lives of the “common people” “Big picture” global perspective 2. Dependency Theory Critique of Development Theory in the late 1960s Wealthy nations actively perpetuate a state of inequality and dependence vis. Developing economies Developing economies provide natural resources and cheap labor needed by the core to ensure wealth and dominance 3. Marxist theory Historical materialism (social relations of production; modes of production) Stages of economic/political development Mode of production Type of System “Reciprocal lineage” “minisystems” (Many in history) “Redistributive-tributary” “World-empires” (A few in history” “Capitalist” “World-economy” (Only one in history) d. Development and Underdevelopment in the world-economy Structural features of the Capitalist world-economy: 1. A single world-market operating within a capitalist logic (ceaseless accumulation) 2. A “multiple-state” system within which political/economic competition is structured 3. A three-tiered international economic and spatial structure of stratification in terms of economic development (core, semiperiphery, periphery)
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