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PBJ 201, First Week Notes

by: SarahGamarra

PBJ 201, First Week Notes PBJ 201

SUNY Oswego
GPA 2.9
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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned this week
Amer Crim Court/Judical Proces
Jaclyn Schildkraut
Class Notes
Public, Justice




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by SarahGamarra on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBJ 201 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Jaclyn Schildkraut in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Amer Crim Court/Judical Proces in Public Justice at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Courts and Case Processing  Why study courts?  Courts are dynamic institutions and are evolving  The legislation is always evolving. As we evolve the courts evolve  Many cases/situations have come up and are always changing the courts. In response the  courts have to change as well  Examples ­9/11 ­Marriage equality  Key terms   Adjudication  ­To settle a dispute through a legal process  ­Judgment, decision   Jurisdiction ­Who the court has power over ­What the court can hear   Geographical jurisdiction  ­Actual physical boundaries that constrict a court from going any further   Subject matter jurisdiction  ­What type of case a court can hear   ­Only specific courts can hear specific cases  ­Example : Traffic courts can only hear traffic cases   Original Jurisdiction  ­The courts power to hear a case and make a ruling  ­The first time a court is hearing a case   Appellate jurisdiction  ­A step up from the original jurisdiction  ­An appellate can review a case to make sure there were no mistakes ­They also can view the decision and change the outcome  History of Federal Courts   Judiciary Act of 1789 ­Article III in the Constitution  ­Created the federal judiciary system  : Supreme Court : 3 Circuit Courts  : 13 District Courts  ­Signed by President George Washington ­Established the Supreme Court   ­Congress still had the power to establish lower federal courts   Marbury vs. Madison  ­1803  ­By the end of his term, John Adams signs William Marbury as a Justice on the Supreme  Court, however, the document was never sent. James Madison was the Secretary of State  of the United States, and had the job to deliver the signed forms, but was not aware of the request. Therefore, William Marbury was not the Justice and a case broke out.  ­Outcome : Establishes the power of the judicial review of the Supreme Court   Courts of Appeals Act of 1891 ­Created circuit court of appeals; gave the Supreme Court discretion over what they  wanted to hear   U.S. Sentencing Guidelines 1984  ­ Provides a punishment  The Federal Courts   Jurisdiction  ­ Cases in which the U.S in a party, and involving violations of the U.S.  ­ Cases involving citizens of different states in U.S  ­ Bankruptcy or patent cases  The Federal Court Structure  I. Trial Courts  U.S. District Courts  ­ 94 Courts  ­ Majority of the cases that come up and pass through are civil cases  2. U.S Bankruptcy Courts  ­ Bankruptcy courts can only take on cases that are about bankruptcy cases ­ One per district    3. U.S. Court of Claims  ­ Courts that hear about cases that are against the United States Government   4. U.S. Court of International Trade  ­ Court that hears cases about any civil action governing imports and transaction  II. Appellate Courts  U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals  ­ 12 Circuits  ­ Consists of three judges and no jury   2. U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit III. High Court   U.S. Supreme Court  *Important to know!* *2  Circuit* ­New York  ­Vermont ­Connecticut   *Chief Justice* John Roberts  The Federal Courts   The Supreme Court Review  ­ Rule of 4                                : At least four Justices have to agree to hear the case  ­ Writ of Certiorari                                 : Get the lower courts to pass everything ab out the case to the Supreme Court  Appeals come from both State and Federal appellate courts  The State Courts   Courts of Limited Jurisdiction ­ Case Subject Matter  : Traffic  : Minor criminal cases but mostly civil cases   Courts of General (Original) Jurisdiction  ­ Major trial courts   Appeals Court  ­  Found in 39 States  : Intermediate level   Courts of Last Resort  ­ State Supreme Court  ­ All States have one, however, Texas and Oklahoma have two (criminal/civil)  because they are so big  Appeals Review  ­ 2 types of Jurisdiction  : Mandatory jurisdiction  1. When someone appeals their case, the court must needs to hear the case  : Discretionary jurisdiction  2. The court has the power to decide whether or not they want to hear a case  Historical Influence on U.S. Courts   The Code of Hammurabi  ­ Presumption of innocence until proven guilty  ­ Lays down the crimes and the proper punishment for the crime   The Magna Carta  ­ Main focus  : Idea of Habeas Corpus                  Ability to challenge the constitutionality of unlawful detention                  Right to a trial by jury    Justinian Code  ­ Shaping civil laws  ­ Indirect effect  : Our laws/code is influenced by the European   Napoleonic Code                      ­    Louisiana is the only State that follows this code                     ­    Influenced by the French    British Common Law ­ We are based on the British Law, except Louisiana  Why Government Courts   Mediation ­ Fighting/discussing over child custody    Arbitration  ­ Both parties agree that the third party (mediator) is right automatically, and what  they say goes     


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