Intro to Animal Science, Week 3 Notes
Intro to Animal Science, Week 3 Notes ANS 121
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Wavrin on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 121 at Oregon State University taught by Professor James Hermes in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week 3 Notes Finishing up on beef cattle… 01/20/16 Beef Cycle: Open – 82 days long – calving, rebreeding, lactation 1 trimester – 95 days long – conception, lactation 2nd trimester – 94 days long – maintain pregnancy, wean calf rd 3 trimester – 94 days long – prepare for calving *calf is 400-600 pounds at the time of weaning Time of Calving: Calving period – depends on forage for cow, but usually in the spring Open period – harvested feed until pasture grows Proper cycling increases profits, calving annually increases profits 50% of body weight gain in calf is from milk/pasture No extra labor with cow and calf on pasture Early Calving: Lifetime production of cow increases by 1 from early calving (get an extra calf out of this cow) - benefit Negative – poorer conception rate and increased calving problems About 10% of heifers won’t take to insemination, and heifer weight will be reduced for 4-5 years Calf weight at weaning is reduced by about 25-50 pounds Weaning: Normal weaning occurs at about 7 months Early weaning is typical in the dairy industry, but not in the beef industry In beef, weaning occurs at about 35 days to 5 months Advantage- may fit into management schedule, allows rebreeding of cows Feeding Early Weaned Calves: Creep feed – “baby food” prepared diet Late weaned calf goes through “hungry calf gap” due to being larger and not getting enough milk for the calf’s size, and the decrease in the cows lactation Veal Production Calves are raised for about 6 months, or about 420 pounds Milk fed (or milk replacer) and restrained Usually Holstein bull calves – available from dairy industry Heifers can be used, but growth rate is slower Sale of Calves Cow/calf rancher keeps replacements (500-600lbs) Sell remainder of calves, usually at an auction Most common type of auction is an oral auction, but today you can buy on the internet Buyer of Calves Stockers buy calves to raise on pasture (grass fed) Allow the calves to grow to about 900-1000 pounds, ADG of 1.5- 2lbs, they stay for about 150 days Back Grounding Lots (“middle” feed lots) Growth rate of about 2-2.5lbs ADG Diet consists of about 70% forage and 30% concentrates Increased cost – feed, labor, facilities Feed Lots 15-20% forage, 80-85% concentrate Cattle remain here for 110-140 days Weight is less important than external fat (0.3-0.5 in) Must change diet gradually to allow microorganisms in rumen to change as well Why use a feedlot? The cattle get to the wanted weight and fat content earlier (1.5-2 years old) Meat Quality Basic consideration – fat content Top 3 cuts: Prime, Choice, Select Fat affects flavor, texture and quality Other lower cuts: standard, commercial, utility, cutter, canner Calf Management Identification, castration, dehorning, vaccination Identification – ear tags, branding (hot, cold, fluid) microchip, tattoo Castration – removal of testes or rendering them non- functional, the purpose of this is to improve meat quality and eliminate aggressive behavior, castration occurs around four months or younger. Methods of castration include surgery, burdizzo, elastrator, chemical injection Dehorning- Horns are a boney core with a keratin covering, methods of removing them include hot iron, cutter, and chemical removal Vaccination – main concern are respiratory viruses such as shipping fever. Also clostridial disease, where a bacteria produces a toxin that antibiotics are too slow to treat Hormones – implants cost about $2 each, returns $40-80 in gain, 20% increase in ADG, 5-8% decrease in feed/gain. Hormones affect the pituitary gland, causing faster growth. There has been concern about the increased estrogen in human food, but there is only a .06 x 10^-9 increase in the estrogen levels Intro to Dairying: 01/22/16 Dairy – milk production, primarily cows, sometimes goats, buffalo and pigs Sheep, horse, and pig milk used outside of the United States Mankind first used milk around 9,000 BC nd Columbus brought cows to the West Indies on his 2 voyage, the first cows were brought to Jamestown in 1611 Most cattle came to the US in the 18 and 19 centuries Most milk was produced as “town milk” before WWII, milk that was produced at a small dairy near town, so it could be delivered before it perished Development Foundation stock to US from Europe – beginning of modern breeds Early producers pooled milk for chees – beginning of cooperative Condensed milk developed – 1856 – more stable product Centrifugal cream separation – 1878 – improved product development Babcock developed milk fat test – 1892 – still used today Pasteurization, homogenization, refrigeration 1929 2007 4.5 million 70 thousand # of farms # of cows/herd 5 131 milk/cow 4000 lbs 20500 lbs time for 100lbs 31/4 hours 1/6 hours total US production 100 billion lbs 186 billion lbs marketing consumer wholesale Other major improvements: Rural electrification Bulk handling Improved transport Artificial insemination Per Capita Usage: Milk – 181 lbs/year Cream – 31.21 lbs/year Cheese – 31.4 lbs/year Favorable Aspects of Dairying Stable Ag business (1-2% variation) Efficient food producers Steady income (unlike beef industry) Dairy cows consume a lot of unsellable forages Maintain soil fertility with manure Steady employment for help Most stable farm enterprises Unfavorable Aspects High capital investment Need trained management and help Many government regulations 24/7 enterprises, no time off! Low hourly income Perishable products High investment/commitment Common dairy breeds: Holstein – highest producer, most common, from Holland, 1500lbs nd Jersey – 2 most common, high test milk, from Isle of Jersey, 1000lbs Guernsey – moderate milk test, from Isle of Guernsey, 1000lbs Brown Swiss – only 155 ever imported to US, from Switzerland, 1500lbs Ayrshire – good on pasture, from Scotland, hobby farms, 1200lbs Milking Shorthorn – not common, from England, high expectations, 1500lbs Red + White – not common, from Holland, red mutation of Holsteins, 1500lbs Holsteins make up 88% of dairy cows, Jerseys make up 10%
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