EUH 4241, Week 1
EUH 4241, Week 1 EUH 4241
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Introduction (1/12/16) The Concept of the Holocaust ● New words created as needed; as new events happen, they may require a new word to describe them. (i.e. “Antisemitism” invented in 1879 to describe hostility toward Jews) WWII ● Slow realization of German mass murder of civilians; from June 1941. ○ Truth revealed by end of war; many played it down. Holocaust ● Holocaust as term used since 1960’s ○ Word itself from 3rd century: “burnt sacrificial offering dedicated exclusively to God” ○ Word used by many Isreali: shoah USHMM ● Holocaust TV miniseries in 1978; many had forgotten already ○ Museum only then conceived ■ Dedicated finally in April 1993 The Historians ● Holocaust not taken as serious topic in its own right until the 1990’s ○ Certainly not in Europe ○ In U.S. mostly German history specialists grew interested Vast Literature ● Now Holocaust studies taken off ○ Doctoral programs, endowed chairs, etc. ● Still finding new sources; impossible to study without language skills. What this Course will explain ● The Crime of the 20th Century ● Mass murder of the Jews: missing evidence like a Hitler order, but it is still the bestdocumented mass crime in all of history. The Victims ● Close to 6 million European Jews (and there are controversies) ● The crime sent shockwaves across every nation in Europe and much of the rest of the world. (Some countries more than others; Poland, France, etc) Perpetrators ● Not a burst of primitive tribalism ● No simple pogrom ○ But modern, often “industrially organized” series of operations. ○ Industrially produced one thing: death. Distinctiveness ● Premeditated, calculating ○ Conceived as “rational” rather than “emotional” ● Unlike many “ethnic conflicts,” the victims were unarmed Puzzling ● Why Germany? ○ Up to 1932, more Nobel prize winners than the U.S. and Britain combined. ○ By any measure, the most educated and civilized country anywhere The Scene of the Crime ● Modern Europe ● Jews from all over Europe were killed ● Majority from Poland and Soviet Union The Questions 1) What were the motives? 2) Why Germany and not another country? Why the timing? 3) Who did the killing? 4) How did it happen? Motives ● Most historians agree: ○ Driven by racial hatred directed at the Jews ○ Other factors involved: material gain (they wanted the money); however this is typically considered a secondary motive. Jews were essential to German economy; killed in spite of economic loss, not for economic gain. Newness of Racism ● Many were prehistoric, ancient, and “traditional” ● Modern racism claimed to be “scientific” and was invented Etymology ● Formation and use of new words ● Modern use of “race” traced to 15001800 ○ Age of discovery New Age, New Questions ● 18th Century (1700’s): age of Enlightenment: ending the “age of faith” ● Still: Persistence opeculation ● Instead of empiricalinvestigation Where did people come from? ● Why are they different looking ● Why different languages ● Why different races and colors? Caucasian ● Introduced by Blumenbach (1795) ○ Slopes of Caucasus Mountains birthplace of “most beautiful” races; southwest Russia, highest mountains in Europe ○ An M.D., professor of anthropology Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (17521840) ● Father of Anthropology ● Bones & Skulls ● 5 Head and Skull Shapes (1781) ○ Caucasian ○ Mongolian ○ Ethiopian ○ American ○ Malay Physiognomy: Study of the Face ● Johann Kaspar Lavater (17411801) ● Face = “mirror to the soul” ○ Sign of “inward grace” Phrenology: Study of Skulls ● Franz Joseph Gall (17581828) ● Head shape revealed character ○ Brain functions Relevance to Course ● Dr. Eva Justin (19011966) ○ Racial anthropologist for Criminal Biological Institute; researched how the races are more likely to commit more crimes (“criminals” ie gypsies sent to death camps Romanticism ● Romantic Age: late 18th, early 19th centuries ● Unique over the universal ○ Not a field of plants, but beauty of the rose Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (18821829) ● coined the term aryan 1808) Each language reflectsVolksgeist ● Europeans wandered from India ● “Aryan” languages derived from sanskrit ○ Best: German, Greek, Latin Holocaust (1/14) (I) European background & Race 19th Century: Science and industrialization ● Interest in origins, race, society, population Cesare Lombroso (18351909) ● Criminal anthropology ● Wrote two books ○ Criminal Man and Criminal Woman ■ Born criminals possess physical structure ■ “Degenerative traits” ● Idea of mugshots Charles Darwin ● Darwin’s Second book ○ The Descent of Man (1871) ○ Turned from plants and animals to man ● Darwinism posed big questions ○ Where did we come from? ○ Could the race be improved? ○ Possible to foster the right kinds? ○ Eliminate or stop birth of wrong kind? Francis Galton (18221911) ● Darwin’s cousin ● Child Protege ● Father of Eugenics ○ Interested in hereditary intelligence ○ Selective breeding/birth control ● Galton’s book ○ Hereditary Genius (1869) ■ Nature over Nurture ● Studied twins (1875) ● Galton’s Policies ○ Encourage “marks” or “grades” for people and encourage them to have children ○ Press the brilliant to marry earlier ○ Used physiognomy photographs to recognize “dysgenic” Darwin and the “Social Question” ● Opponents of helping poor ● Pointed to the fallacy of helping the sick, infirm, disadvantaged ● “Nature” over “Nurture” = Heredity over Help; not just in Germany Advocates of Eugenics ● Not just “rightwingers” ● Many major “progressive” thinkers ● In U.S. as well Eugenics + Compulsory Sterilization ● U.S. the pioneer and leader ○ Legislation passed in Indiana (1907), and California (1909) ○ Supreme Court declared legal and constitutional in Buck v. Bell (1927) (II) How did the Jews get involved? Destruction of the Temple ● On 14 April 70 AD they were driven out of Middle East Jews Europe ● A Christian based society ● Occasional Ritual murder charges ● Occasional Pogroms Jews Excluded from ● Owning lands; from guilds ● Restricted “settlement” rights ● “Court Jews”: exception to the rule Ghetto ● First mention: Venice, 1516 ● Closedoff areas of cities ● Initially voluntary, soon forced European Jews ● By 18th century, downtrodden social outsiders ● General Society: brutal, cruel, unjust ● Churches major rule 18th Century Enlightenment ● All social ills solved with education ● Make a more humane world ○ Toleration, more humanity, education ● Birth of liberalism 1789 French Revolution ● Ghettos gradually torn down ● Liberal freedoms introduced ● Emancipation in Western Europe Emancipation of the Jews ● After 1815, partial reversals ● Introduced gradually across Europe (III) Deutschland 18711918 ● 1st Reich: HeiligesRomisches Reich deutscher Nations, 8001806 ● 2nd Reich: Kaiserreich or Imperial Germany, 1871 1918 ● Unified by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck Bismarck (181898) ● A conservative granted: ○ 18834: Pay during illness, Workman’s Comp ○ 1883: mandatory health insurance; lowincome workers & some civil servants ○ 1889: Old age pension (over 70) ○ 1871: Manhood Suffrage ■ All males 25 and older ■ First Socialist party Jewish Lives ● A “merchant minority” stores and professionals ● In rural areas: social role as merchants in grain, wine, etc. ● Often lived apart, drank at home German Jewish Community ● Glaubensjuden ○ decreasing population ■ Approx. half a million Jews in 1871 and declining Jews in Germany 18711914 ● Majority: patriotic Germans ● Generally better off ● Enjoyed more rights than anywhere on earth The Great Depression ● 187396 ● Deflationary times, unsettling ● Political radicalism, uncertainty, search for answers ○ and new words Antisemitismus (1879) ● Wilhelm Marr (18191904) ○ “Der Sieg des Judenthums uber das Germanenthum von nicht confessionellen Standpunkt” Prejudices: Old v. New ● Old, traditional, mainly religious; “Judenhass”; solved by conversion of Jews ● New, based on race instead of religion; Jews cannot change their race ○ Solution? Anti Semitism: Racial ● AntiSemites “see only blood” ● Conversion from Judaism not a “solution” ● Bloody implications from the start Politically Organized AntiSemitism in Germany ● Aim: reverse Jewish emancipation ● Election 1887: 1 seat ● Highest vote: 284,250; 16 seats Failure of Politically AntiSemitism down to 1914 in Germany ● No political space ● Economic crisis gone after 1896 ● But: other parties adopt some of the message (IV) Russian Empire: Key Part of Europe ● A lot of jews lived there (approx. 5 million) Russian Empire ● Catherine II (the Great) decree 1791 ○ Pale of Settlement Jews may not live beyond the Pale ■ At its height held 40% Jewish population in the world Jews in Russian Empire ● Animosity greater than in Western Europe ● Jews faced discrimination worse than anywhere Alexander II Assassination March 1881 ● Pogroms: 259 follow: 50 est. killed ● More: 1903, 1905, 1911: est. 4500 to 5000 killed ● Result: ⅓ of all Jews flee Migration via AustriaHungary ● Thousands fled
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