Behavioral Neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Behavioral Neuroscience January 19 - January 22 nd Week 1 Notes FACTS You use 100% of your brain Behavior is NOT controlled by single or individual brain areas Information processing in the brain does NOT progress in a single direction such as only from simple to complex processes. They can also go from complex to simple and create an intricate network via feedback mechanisms. Dopamine, or any other neurotransmitter, is not responsible for human happiness. Neurotransmitters are not linked to a single outcome such as the only source for a human emotion. Nervous System (N.S.) Overview Neurons: Workhorses of the nervous system Glial Cells : Support for Neurons Central Nervous System: Brain + Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System: Everything Else Neurons (sensory or motor) Autonomic N.S. Somatic N.S. Neurons Soma: A cell body; contains nucleus Dendrites: Protrusions branching from soma Some somas have more dendrites than others and some even have no dendrites Dendrites can indicate how many connections are being made with other neurons Axon: Long slender projection from soma. Electrical charges build in the soma and it shoots an action potential down the axon Axon Hillock: Where the soma and Axon connect Myelin Sheath: A layer of myelin that encapsulates the axon Nodes of Ranvier: Small gaps between the myelin where the axon is exposed Terminal Buttons: Small knobs at the end of the axon Terminal buttons are what form connections to the dendrites of other neurons *** Interesting NOTE: Not all neurons have an axon. Glial Cells 1. Astrocytes: Glue that holds neurons in place 2. Microglia: Like the Brains immune system 3. Oligodendrocytes: Form myelin sheaths in Central Nervous System neurons 4. Schwann Cells: Form myelin in Peripheral Nervous System neurons Memory TIP! Oligodendrocyres+CNS Schwann+PNS Astrocytes 1. Structural support to neurons a. Holds cells in place to maintain the synaptic space at a preferred distance 2. Forms blood-brain barrier a. Tightly controls what is allowed to enter the brain b. A wall forms around capillary vessels 3. Cleans up debris 4. Maintain chemical environment a. Ex: Imbalance of potassium triggers astrocytes to move potassium across the barrier Microglia 1. Serve a protective function 2. Uptake debris a. Also forms scar tissue in the brain 3. Immune Response 4. Much smaller than other Glial cells Oligodendrocytes 1. Found in the Central Nervous System 2. Produces myelin sheaths a. Processes from olig. wrap around axons many times to form myelin segments 3. Provides structural support Schwann Cell 1. Found in Peripheral Nervous System 2. Produce the myelin sheath in PNS a. One Schwann Cell = ONE myelin sheath b. Entire Schwann cell wraps around an axon to form a segment of myelin Practice QUESTION: When looking at a neuron from a human finger, what kind of cell would form that neuron’s myelin sheath? Answer: The myelin sheath would be made of Schwann cells. Since it is not part of the brain or the spinal cord, we know that the neurons in a finger would be a part of the PERIPHERAL nervous system. Neural Communication 1. Resting Potential a. Considered a property of the cell b. Normally a negative charge of -70 mv 2. Graded potentials a. Connections with other cells that release neurotransmitters b. Neuro transmitters pass on a positive charge that gradually build up the charge of a cell 3. Action potential a. When charges are built up enough the action potential occurs b. Starts from axon hillock, travels down the axon through the nodes of Ranvier, and reaches the terminals 4. Synaptic transmission a. Passing information across a synapse from one cells axon terminals to another cell’s dendrites EXCEPT!!! In the unique case of the senses such as the eye, information sent to the dendrites uses light as a trigger instead of a neuron’s terminals. Neuronal Membrane 3 parts of the Neuronal Membrane 1. Phospholipid Bilayer: Makes boundary/ membrane of the cell 2. Membrane proteins: Exchange of ions; allows change in the cells charge a. Ion channels: Act as a door (B in image above) b. Pumps: Actively transports, burns energy (D in image above) c. Receptors: Closed until neurotransmitter opens it so ions can go in (C in image above) 3. Membrane Permeability: Can be low or high considering how many proteins allow ions to pass through a. When more ions go through, that cell is considered more permeable to that ion
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