Psych 433 Ch.1 Notes
Psych 433 Ch.1 Notes Psych 433
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
Le Mont Garrison-Paschal
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Schrick on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 433 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by K. Harry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.
Reviews for Psych 433 Ch.1 Notes
I'm a really bad notetaker and the opportunity to connect with a student who can provide this help is amazing. Thank you so much StudySoup, I will be back!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/21/16
Ch.1 Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Understanding Psychopathology Psychological disorder a psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected. Phobiaa psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation. What is a Psychological Disorder? Psychological dysfunction refers to a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning. Behavior is outside of cultural norms. Ex. if you are out on a date, it should be fun. But if you experience severe fear all evening and just want to go home, even though there is nothing to be afraid of, and the severe dear happens on every date, your emotions are not functioning properly. However, if all your friends agree that the person who asked you out is unpredictable and dangerous in some way, then it would not be dysfunctional for you to be fearful and avoid the date. 3 Criteria for Dining a Psychological Disorder 1. Psychological dysfuntion 2. Abnormal behavior a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected. DSM5 contains diagnostic criteria Most recent update occurred May 2013 Personal Distress of Impairment Distress and suffering are a natural part of life and do not in themselves constitute as a psychological disorder. It is often quite normal to be distressed. Example= death in family. Impairment can be useful, although not entirely satisfactory. But if you are so shy you find it impossible to date/interact and you avoid interactions when you like having friends, then your social functioning is impaired. Atypical or Not Culturally Expected the criterion that the response be atypical or not culturally expected is important but also insufficient to determine abnormality by itself. normal/abnormal= behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfuntions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress and impairment in functioning, or increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or impairment. The Science of Psychopathology Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders. Field= clinical and counseling psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, and psychiatric nurses, marriage and family therapists, and mental health counselors 1. Clinical and Counseling Psychologists Ph.D degree+ 5 years graduate level study clinical= concentrate on more severe psychological disorders. counseling= tend to study and treat adjustment and vocational issues encountered by relatively healthy individuals 2. Psychiatrists M.D. + then specialize in psychiatry during 34 year residency training investigate nature and causes of psychological disorders, make diagnosis, offer treatment 3. Psychiatric Social Workers Masters in social work; develop expertise while collecting info Treat disorders 4. Psychiatric Nurses Masters/Ph.D specialize in care and treatment of patients with psychological disorder, usually in hospitals 5. Marriage/Family Therapists and Mental Health Counselors 12 year master's degree provide clinical services by hospitals or clinics, usually under supervision of doctor Ph.D: clinical and counseling psychologists (trained in research and delivering treatment) Psy. D: Clinical and counseling "Doctor of Psychology" (trained in delivering treatment) M.D. : Psychiatrist Psychiatric nurses hospital care and treatment LCSW: Licensed clinical social worker (trained in delivering treatment) The ScientistPractitioner The most important development in recent history of psychology is the adoption of scientific methods to learn more about the nature of psychological disorders, their causes, and their treatment. Scientistspractitioners= mental health worker that takes a scientific approach to their clinical work Mental health practitioners may function as scientistpractitioners in one or more than three ways: 1. Keep up with latest scientific development; use most current diagnostic and treatment procedures 2. Evaluate own assessments/treatment procedures to see if they work/reliable 3. Conduct research that produces new info about disorders/treatments; such data from research that proves reliable would include 3 things: clinical description, causation, and treatment/outcome. Clinical description= the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that make up a specific disorder Begins with… Presenting problem= when saying that a patient "presents" with a specific problem(s); why person came into clinic (symptoms) Prevalence the number of people in the population with disorder Incidence the number of new cases occurring over a specific period • Describe onset of disorders – Acute begin suddenly vs. insidious onset develop gradually over an extended period of time • Describe course of disorders – Episodic means it lasts a short time (ex. mood disorders) Timelimited Chronic course means it lasts a long time (ex. schizophrenia) • Prognosis anticipated course of disorder – Good vs. Guarded Clinical refers to types of problems/disorders that you would find in clinic/hospital and the actives connect with assessment and treatment. Developmental psychology study of changes in behavior over time Developmental psychopathology study of changes in abnormal behavior LifeSpan Developmental Psychopathology study of abnormal behavior across the entire age span Causation, Treatment, and Etiology Outcomes Etiology study of origins; dealing with causation and includes biological, psychological, and social dimensions. In psychopathology, the effect does not necessarily imply the cause. Ex. Have headache.Take aspirin and helps. But, doesn't mean headache caused by lack of aspirin Treatment development How can we help alleviate psychological suffering? Includes pharmacological, psychosocial, and/or combined treatments Treatment outcome research How do we know that we helped? surveys, objective measures, May be difficult to directly target causes of disorders; symptoms are targeted instead Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior Major psychological disorders have existed in all cultures and across all time periods Causes and treatment of abnormal behavior vary widely across cultures, time periods, world views Three dominant traditions have existed in the past to explain abnormal behavior: 1. Supernatural demons; sorcery; 2. Biologicalstudy of diseases/humans (biology) 3. Psychological thoughts/feelings; engrained in biological • Consequences of the Biological Tradition Mental illness = physical illness Emil Kraepelin: Classification of disorders emphasized that different disorders have unique age of onset, symptoms, and causes The Psychological Tradition The rise of moral therapy became popular in first half of 19th century "Moral" referring to psychological/emotional factors Main idea= treat patients as normally as possible in normal environments More humane treatment of institutionalized patients Encouraged and reinforces social interation Asylum reform > more patients getting care Moral Therapy declined because more difficult with large groups of patients Soon followed by emergence of competing alternative psychological models Psychoanalytic Theory Freudian theory of the structure and function of the mind Unconscious outside of awareness Catharsis Psychoanalytic model sought to explain development and personality Structure of the mind: Id illogical; emotional; irrational driven by: moral principles Superego logical; rational driven by: reality principles Ego illogical; emotional; irrational driven by: pleasure principles The "Talking" Cure Unearth the hidden intrapsychic conflicts "The real problems" Therapy is often longterm Techniques Free association Dream analysis Examine transference and countertransference issues Little evidence for efficacy Psychoanalytic practitioners patients usually seen 1+ year; slow progression over time Humanistic Theory Major themes people are basically good humans strive toward selfactualization Major players Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers Personcentered therapy Therapist conveys empathy and unconditional positive regard Minimal therapist interpretation No strong evidence that purely humanistic therapies work to treat mental disorders More effective for people dealing with normal life stress, not suffering from psychopathology The Behavioral Model Derives from a scientific approach to the study of psychopathology Classical conditioning (Pavlov, Watson) Ubiquitous form of learning People learn associations between neutral stimuli and stimuli that already have meaning Conditioning explains the acquisition of some fears Classical Conditioning Example Advertising promoting beer with goodlooking women= associating their beer with goodlooking women Perfume Food The Beginnings of Behavior Therapy Challenged psychoanalysis and nonscientific approaches Early pioneers Joseph Wolpe: systematic desensitization Operant conditioning (Thorndike, Skinner) reinforcement positive/negative another ubiquitous form of learning voluntary behavior is controlled by consequences Learning traditions influenced the development of behavior therapy behavior therapy tends to be timelimited and direct strong evidence supporting the efficacy of behavior therapies behavior therapy: creating new associations by practicing new behavioral habits, and/or reinforcing useful behaviors with positive consequences An Integrative Approach: Summary Psychopathology is multiply determined Unidimensional accounts of psychopathology are incomplete Most consider reciprocal (interact with each other) relations among: Biological, psychological, social, and experimental factors Defining abnormal behavior Complex, multifaceted, and has evolved Science of psychopathology is evolving The supernatural tradition no longer has a place in a science of abnormal behavior Ongoing research informs or understanding What supernatural influences were formerly believed to explain abnormal behavior? What are the assumptions of the biological approach? How do various psychological approaches explain abnormal behavior? Exam Questions The criterion that a particular behavior be atypical or not culturally expected is insufficient to define because A. behavior that occurs infrequently is considered abnormal in eery culture B. the atypical behavior must also cause harm or impairment to be considered abnormal C. behaviors vary from very little form one individual to another within each culture D. many people behave in ways that deviate from the average, but this doesn't mean that they have a disorder You just adopted a puppy and you want to teach it to sit. What approach would B.F. Skinner advise you to take? A. Punish the puppy each time it does not sit B. Give the puppy a treat each time it gets a little closer to sitting perfectly C. Give the puppy a treat each time it sits perfectly and not otherwise D. Be patient and understand that behavior shaping occurs naturally over developmental stages
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'