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Psych 433 Ch.1 Notes

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by: Derek Schrick

Psych 433 Ch.1 Notes Psych 433

Derek Schrick
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These are notes over chapter 1 for Abnormal Psychology.
Abnormal Psychology
K. Harry
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Schrick on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 433 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by K. Harry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Ch.1­ Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Understanding Psychopathology ­ Psychological disorder­ a psychological dysfunction within an individual  associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not  typical or culturally expected. Phobia­a psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of  an object or situation. What is a Psychological Disorder? ­ Psychological dysfunction refers to a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or  behavioral functioning. Behavior is outside of cultural norms. Ex. if you are out on a date, it should be fun.  But if you experience severe fear  all evening and just  want to go home, even though there is nothing to be afraid  of, and the severe dear happens on every date, your emotions are not  functioning properly.  However, if all your friends agree that the person who asked you out is unpredictable and dangerous in some way, then it would not be dysfunctional for  you to be fearful and avoid the date.  3 Criteria for Dining a Psychological Disorder 1. Psychological dysfuntion 2.  ­ Abnormal behavior­ a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is  associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not  typical or culturally expected. ­ DSM­5 contains diagnostic criteria ­ Most recent update occurred May 2013         Personal Distress of Impairment ­ Distress and suffering are a natural part of life and do not in themselves  constitute as a psychological disorder. ­ It is often quite normal to be distressed.  Example= death in family. ­ Impairment can be useful, although not entirely satisfactory. But if you are so  shy you find it impossible to date/interact and you avoid interactions when you  like having friends, then your social functioning is impaired.         Atypical or Not Culturally Expected ­ the criterion that the response be atypical or not culturally expected is important but also insufficient to determine abnormality by itself.  ­ normal/abnormal= behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfuntions that are  unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress and  impairment in functioning, or increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or  impairment. The Science of Psychopathology Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders. ­ Field= clinical and counseling psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric  social workers, and psychiatric nurses, marriage and family therapists, and  mental health counselors 1. Clinical and Counseling Psychologists­  ­ Ph.D degree+ 5 years graduate level study ­ clinical= concentrate on more severe psychological disorders. ­ counseling= tend to study and treat adjustment and vocational issues  encountered by relatively healthy individuals 2. Psychiatrists ­ M.D. + then specialize in psychiatry during 3­4 year residency training ­ investigate nature and causes of psychological disorders, make diagnosis, offer treatment 3. Psychiatric Social Workers ­ Masters in social work; develop expertise while collecting info ­ Treat disorders 4. Psychiatric Nurses ­ Masters/Ph.D ­ specialize in care and treatment of patients with psychological disorder,  usually in hospitals 5. Marriage/Family Therapists and Mental Health Counselors ­ 1­2 year master's degree ­ provide clinical services by hospitals or clinics, usually under supervision  of doctor Ph.D: clinical and counseling psychologists (trained in research and delivering  treatment) Psy. D: Clinical and counseling "Doctor of Psychology" (trained in delivering  treatment) M.D. : Psychiatrist Psychiatric nurses­ hospital care and treatment LCSW: Licensed clinical social worker (trained in delivering treatment) The Scientist­Practitioner The most important development in recent history of psychology is the adoption  of scientific methods to learn more about the nature of psychological disorders,  their causes, and their treatment. Scientists­practitioners= mental health worker that takes a scientific approach to  their clinical work Mental health practitioners may function as scientist­practitioners in one or more  than three ways: 1. Keep up with latest scientific development; use most current diagnostic and  treatment procedures 2. Evaluate own assessments/treatment procedures to see if they work/reliable 3. Conduct research that produces new info about disorders/treatments; such  data from research that proves reliable would include 3 things: clinical  description, causation, and treatment/outcome. Clinical description= the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings  that make up a specific disorder Begins with… Presenting problem= when saying that a patient "presents" with a specific  problem(s); why person came into clinic (symptoms) Prevalence­ the number of people in the population with disorder Incidence­ the number of new cases occurring over a specific period • Describe onset of disorders  – Acute­ begin suddenly      vs.  insidious onset­ develop gradually over an extended period of time • Describe course of disorders  – Episodic­ means it lasts a short time (ex. mood disorders) ­ Time­limited­  ­ Chronic course­ means it lasts a long time (ex. schizophrenia) • Prognosis­ anticipated course of disorder – Good­       vs.  ­ Guarded­  Clinical­ refers to types of problems/disorders that you would find in clinic/hospital and the actives connect with assessment and treatment. Developmental psychology­ study of changes in behavior over time Developmental psychopathology­ study of changes in abnormal behavior Life­Span Developmental Psychopathology­ study of abnormal behavior across  the entire age span         Causation, Treatment, and Etiology Outcomes Etiology­ study of origins; dealing with causation and includes biological,  psychological, and social dimensions. In psychopathology, the effect does not necessarily imply the cause.  Ex. Have headache.Take aspirin and helps. But, doesn't mean headache  caused by lack of aspirin Treatment development ­ How can we help alleviate psychological suffering? ­ Includes pharmacological, psychosocial, and/or combined treatments Treatment outcome research ­ How do we know that we helped? surveys, objective measures,  ­ May be difficult to directly target causes of disorders; symptoms are targeted  instead Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior ­ Major psychological disorders have existed in all cultures and across all time  periods ­ Causes and treatment of abnormal behavior vary widely across cultures, time  periods, world views Three dominant traditions have existed in the past to explain abnormal behavior: 1. Supernatural­ demons; sorcery; 2. Biological­study of diseases/humans (biology) 3. Psychological­ thoughts/feelings; engrained in biological  • Consequences of the Biological Tradition ­ Mental illness = physical illness ­ Emil Kraepelin: Classification of disorders ­ emphasized that different disorders have unique age of onset, symptoms,  and causes The Psychological Tradition The rise of moral therapy ­ became popular in first half of 19th century ­ "Moral"­ referring to psychological/emotional factors ­ Main idea= treat patients as normally as possible in normal environments ­ More humane treatment of institutionalized patients ­ Encouraged and reinforces social interation ­ Asylum reform > more patients getting care ­ Moral Therapy declined because more difficult with large groups of  patients ­ Soon followed by emergence of competing alternative psychological  models Psychoanalytic Theory Freudian theory of the structure and function of the mind ­ Unconscious­ outside of awareness ­ Catharsis ­ Psychoanalytic model sought to explain development and personality Structure of the mind: Id ­ illogical; emotional; irrational ­ driven by: moral principles Superego ­ logical; rational ­ driven by: reality principles  Ego ­ illogical; emotional; irrational ­ driven by: pleasure principles The "Talking" Cure Unearth the hidden intrapsychic conflicts ­ "The real problems" Therapy is often long­term Techniques ­ Free association ­ Dream analysis Examine transference and counter­transference issues Little evidence for efficacy Psychoanalytic practitioners­ patients usually seen 1+ year; slow progression  over time Humanistic Theory Major themes ­ people are basically good ­ humans strive toward self­actualization Major players ­ Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers Person­centered therapy ­ Therapist conveys empathy and unconditional positive regard ­ Minimal therapist interpretation No strong evidence that purely humanistic therapies work to treat mental  disorders ­ More effective for people dealing with normal life stress, not suffering from  psychopathology The Behavioral Model Derives from a scientific approach to the study of psychopathology Classical conditioning (Pavlov, Watson) ­ Ubiquitous form of learning ­ People learn associations between neutral stimuli and stimuli that already have  meaning ­ Conditioning explains the acquisition of some fears Classical Conditioning Example Advertising­ promoting beer with good­looking women= associating their beer  with goodlooking women Perfume Food The Beginnings of Behavior Therapy Challenged psychoanalysis and non­scientific approaches Early pioneers­ Joseph Wolpe: systematic desensitization Operant conditioning (Thorndike, Skinner) ­ reinforcement­ positive/negative ­ another ubiquitous form of learning ­ voluntary behavior is controlled by consequences Learning traditions influenced the development of behavior therapy ­ behavior therapy tends to be time­limited and direct ­ strong evidence supporting the efficacy of behavior therapies ­ behavior therapy: creating new associations by practicing new behavioral  habits, and/or reinforcing useful behaviors with positive consequences An Integrative Approach: Summary Psychopathology is multiply determined Unidimensional accounts of psychopathology are incomplete Most consider reciprocal (interact with each other) relations among: ­ Biological, psychological, social, and experimental factors Defining abnormal behavior ­ Complex, multifaceted, and has evolved Science of psychopathology is evolving ­ The supernatural tradition no longer has a place in a science of abnormal  behavior ­ Ongoing research informs or understanding What supernatural influences were formerly believed to explain abnormal  behavior? What are the assumptions of the biological approach? How do various psychological approaches explain abnormal behavior? Exam Questions The criterion that a particular behavior be atypical or not culturally expected is  insufficient to define because A.  behavior that occurs infrequently is considered abnormal in eery culture B. the atypical behavior must also cause harm or impairment to be considered  abnormal C. behaviors vary from very little form one individual to another within each  culture D. many people behave in ways that deviate from the average, but this  doesn't mean that they have a disorder You just adopted a puppy and you want to teach it to sit. What approach would  B.F. Skinner advise you to take? A. Punish the puppy each time it does not sit B. Give the puppy a treat each time it gets a little closer to sitting perfectly C. Give the puppy a treat each time it sits perfectly and not otherwise D. Be patient and understand that behavior shaping occurs naturally over  developmental stages


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