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Bio 1009 Lecture Notes

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by: veronicaturtu

Bio 1009 Lecture Notes bio 1009

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Biology > bio 1009 > Bio 1009 Lecture Notes
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These notes cover the first week and a half of lecture notes.
General biology
Class Notes
biology lecture notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1009 at University of Minnesota taught by Cheryl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see General biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Bio 1009H Lecture 2 1.21.2016 Basic Chemistry Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Atom Element Molecule Compound  Similar shape of compounds = similar function, reacts similarly Atom  Composition: made up of protons, neutrons, electrons  Structure: nucleus that contains protons and neutrons (1 Dalton of mass- p & n); cloud of electrons around the nucleus o Electrons have different amounts of energy that are broken down into levels around the nucleus (closer to nucleus = lower energy level)  Interaction with outer shell is important  Orbitals: shape changed as orbits increase; ex. 2p orbit = three dumbbells Elements  Basic substance that cannot be divided into simpler substance by chemical reactions  Composed of many atoms that are the same  Know symbols: atomic number = number of protons; mass number = number of protons and neutrons  No helium in organisms because Nobel gas that cannot react with anything because it has a complete outer shell  H, O, C, N = major elements  Isotopes o Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons Molecule  Any substance compose of two or more atoms Compounds  Lower level organization is different from the others: Emergent properties Valence Electrons: electrons that can be shared More electrons = high level of electronegativity Covalent Bond  Biochemical reactions of making and breaking bonds  Sharing of electrons in order to fill the outer shell  Example: water  High electronegativity makes an element polar which allows it to pull electrons towards them o Polar: dipole-dipole bonding, bond with ions, other hydrogen bonds Ionic Bond  Different charges that are attracted to one another  Transfer an electron changes the charge o Cation is positive o Anion is negative  The two can bond with the opposite charges  Strong bond in dry conditions 1  Weak when dissolved in solution, such as water Hydrogen Bond  Forms when a H atom, covalently bonded to an electronegative atom, is attracted to another electronegative atom  H-F, H-O, H-N  Weak bonds individually, but together they are strong Van der Waals Interactions  Interactions between molecules at regions of negative or positive charge  Charges are due to the momentary asymmetrical distribution of elections in the molecular structure  Weak H bonds allow for temporary associations that are released to cause another interaction Composition of Organisms Inorganic: water  Polar molecule: one end is positive the other negative (unequal sharing of electrons)  H-bonding between water molecules o Variety of emergent properties due to structure  High specific heat and heat of vaporization o Keeps organisms from overheating o Bonds are breaking which absorbs energy o Bonds are form when cooling and releases energy  Cohesion and adhesion o Cohesion= hold together for a strong organized structured bond o Adhesion= adhere to other things  High Surface Tension o Polar o Resists being pulled apart o Insects can stay on top  Expansion upon freezing o Less dense so ice can float  Solvent o The universal use o Necessary in organisms for chemical reactions 2 Lecture 3 1.26.16 Chemical Composition of Organisms Inorganic: water Organic: carbs, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids Dissociation of water—one H will bind to another water molecule forming a hydronium ion and hydroxide ion Water is weakly ionic; acids increase the H+ in solution; bases reduce the H= in solution pH = -log (H+) Buffer  A substance that helps keep the pH of a solution constant  To maintain the pH of a solution, the buffer takes up or releases to the solution H or hydroxide ion  Allows chemical reactions to occur at optimal rate Carbon  Pairs with O,N,H,P,S (common)  Variation in carbon skeleton (all cause to act differently) o Branching o Length o Double bonds- less flexibility o Rings  Geometric isomers- cis-trans  Enantiomers- different space  Functional groups o Hydroxyl- H-bonding, polarity o Carboxyl- polar because of the EN of O o Carbonyl- polarity, H-bonding, acts like an acid because can release H-ion into solution o Sulfhydryl- proteins & other macromolecules to hold them together o Phosphate- hydrophilic (polar), negative charge o Amino- acts as a base, remove H-ions in solution, gives a positive charge o Methyl- changes how some genes are expressed  Sex hormones- functional groups are different which can change the shape and properties Functional groups: organic compounds share similar properties because they have similar chemical groups Monosaccharides- CARBS Monomer of sugar is a monosaccharide (of different sizes, lot of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups-very polar) Amino Acids- PROTEINS- monomer for proteins (polypeptides), asymmetrical, amino group (acts like a base), carboxylic acid group (acts like an acid), and R group, O is negatively charge in solution while amino group positively charged 3 Nucleotide- RNA & DNA- fiver carbon sugar, phosphate group (attached to 5-prime carbon), bases (attached to 1-prime carbon), 2-prime carbon determines ribose (OH; in RNA) or deoxyribose (H; in DNA)—pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, RNA-uracil) & purines (guanine and adenine) – RECOGNIZE ATP- ribose, adenine, 3 phosphates; major energy molecule Lipids- no monomer because made up of fatty acids (nonpolar) and glycerol (polar); saturated (all H associated with a C) or unsaturated (have a double bond) Polymers  Made of monomers  Polysaccharides and Disaccharides  Proteins, RNA, DNA (folded in a particular manner)  Condensation reaction- anabolic- lose water molecule and two monomers are connected together  Hydrolysis- insertion of a water molecule which separates the monomers  Functions of carbs o Breakdown to get ATP o Used in a plants as a starch o Storage of sugars in a humans  Glyosidic bonds- condensation to form polymer and then hydrolysis to break it apart  Proteins o Enzymes o Transport o Structural components o Contractile molecules o Hormones o Defense o Storage o Signal receptors o Gene regulations  R-groups of AMINO ACIDS o Gives the acid its character (polarity or electrically charged; affects how the protein folds)  Peptide bond- amino end and carboxylic end; release of a water molecule; have backbone that contains amino and carboxylic and R-groups off the side  Primary structure- higher levels of organization; sequential change  Secondary structure- alpha helix or beta pleated sheet; held together by H-bonds  Tertiary structure- depend on side changes interactions with backbone or one another; hydrophobic regions on the inside of structure and van der Waals interactions with nonpolar regions  Quaternary structure- different polypeptides come together to form different structure; gives strength or elasticity  Protein denaturation- broken down by heat and changes in pH; can be permanent or temporary depending on level or applications TO REMEMBER: o 20 different amino acids o 3D shape is critical to function 4 o Sequence is determined by DNA o Proteins are sensitive to heat and pH Nucleic Acids  Functions: storage, replication, translation of genetic material  Phosphodiester bond- phosphate on 5-prime sugar associated with 3-prime Carbon, water is release to form the bond  DNA- double stranded held by H-bonds, backbone is phosphate, sugar is deoxyribose  RNA- single strand, sugar is oxyribose Lecture #4 1.28.2015 5


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