Week Two PSC 1003
Popular in Intro to International Politics
Laura Castro Lindarte
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Public Relations
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Bill Mikhail in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
January 20, 2016 Schools of International Relations ● Realism: ○ Oldest and most profound of all schools of thoughts about IR ○ Focused more on individual nations ○ Believe that power is directly related to military strength, size of territory, etc. ○ Power is very important in IR with all nations trying to have more power ○ Believe in rivalries between nations ■ Though they have choice of working together, rivalries are still a norm in IR ○ Believe that humans are naturally full of sin ■ This sinful nature of humans is seen in nations as well since they are controlled by humans ○ The state is the basic unit of IR; leaders will think of their state before anything else when dealing with international issues ■ How will this benefit my state’s power and influence ○ IR is done mostly by the elite ■ USA used to have strong WASP elite that had strong connections to the Eastern establishment ■ Has decreased in power with minority groups getting more and more involved in IR a. This is partly due to the fact that to deal with IR you no longer have to be a lawyer ○ When deciding what to do with foreign policy, states mainly consRaison d’Etat (national interest) - focus on biggest challenge to nation ○ When trying to reach goals, nations have no moral conduct (will do whatever it takes) ■ Will use unethical means to get things ■ Ex: Germany invading Belgium to get to France ○ Believe that history and geography influences the way alliances and counter - alliances are set up ■ You need to be aware of the relationship nations have with ne ighboring nations now and in the past ○ Balance of Power Formula: a complex arrangement revolved around alliances and counter-alliance ■ In past, European nations organized themselves in alliances and counter - alliances ■ Usually it focused on countering Germany a. UK, France and Italy vs. Germany, Ottoman Empire and Spain ○ Criticism of Realism: ■ European Experience: focus only in Europe even though it is not the only area where this takes place a. Can use Europe as model but need to be aware of dynamics of other places ■ The discussions that occur about foreign policy are usually done in secret between elites a. Public know little about what takes place b. This was one of the things that led to the failure after WW2 ■ Constant debates over how to use power? How to define the natural interest? ■ Question whether historical and geographical factors are really that important a. Countries sometimes focus on far away places b. Result from technological advances making it easier to connect with other far away countries ■ Power is not only based on military and having territory with economic power is very influential today a. Ex: Costa Rica has no standing army and avoided fate of internal violence that is common is r est of Latin America b. Ex: Dubai is super small but economy is powerful so it is influential ○ Congress of Berlin: 1884-1885 ■ 2nd Congress of Berlin that discusses the scramble of Africa a. 1st Congress of Berlin discussed dividing countries after fall of Ottoman Empire in Balkan Peninsula ■ Germany, France, Britain, Portugal and Spain fighting over territory in Africa a. Germany joined colonial race late, but was still given territory (taken back after WW2) ■ This example supports realism ● One of the most important question is how, when, where and why to apply power ● Another thing that is important is nationalism because blood ties are above the state ● Liberalism: ○ Aka world order and idealism ○ Directly goes against realism ○ Humans are able to redeem sin (naturally good) ○ Nations can get involved internationally to work together to avoid real conflict ■ Negotiations > using force ■ Helps establish good ties between different nations ○ Call for more transparency with more input from other groups other than elites ● Criticism of Liberalism: ○ Historical records of nations going into war and ignoring international law/treaties go against the Liberalism ideas ■ Nations will still fight because rivalries wil l continue to exist; this will take a long time to change ● Example of India: ○ British leave India in 1947 ○ Difficulties arose when trying to unite muslims and hindus so Pakistan was created ○ Later Pakistan was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh ○ Territorial dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir ● Territorial Dispute: conflict over who has sovereignty over territories ● Dispute over oil-rich Bubiyan island: ○ Between Iraq and Kuwait ○ Due to Iraq invading Kuwait to get a hold of island to get oil
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