Chapter 1 Reading Notes
Chapter 1 Reading Notes HD 202
Popular in Middle childhood through Adolescence
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Popular in Human Development
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Amy Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Middle childhood through Adolescence in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategies Questions to think about: In what ways are children’s home, school, and neighborhood experiences the same today as they were in past generations? In what ways are they different? How are the perceptions of young children the same and different from adults? What determines the features humans have in common and makes us unique? (Physically, mentally, behaviorally) Why do some of us keep the same ways of responding that characterized us as children, and others chance in essential ways? How do cultural changes affect children’s characteristics? Vocabulary: Child Development: area of study devoted to understand consistency and change from conception to adolescence (P 4) Developmental Science: the larger interdisciplinary field which includes all changes we experience through life (P 4) Theory: an orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior (P 7) Continuous: a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with (P 8) Discontinuous: process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times (P 8) Stages: qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterizes specific periods of development (P 8) Contexts: unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change (P 8) Nature-Nurture Controversy: are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development (P 9) Plasticity: as open to change in response to influential experiences (P 9) Maturation: genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth (P 13) Psychoanalytic Perspective: the conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person’s ability to learn, get along with others, and to cope with anxiety (P 15) Psychosexual Theory: emphasizes how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development (P 15) Psychosocial Theory: in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands the ego makes a positive contribution to development (P 15) Behaviorism: directly observable events are the appropriate focus of study (P 17) Social-Learning Theory: emphasizes modeling as a powerful source of development (Bandura) (P 17) Applied Behavior Analysis: observations of relationships between behavior and environmental events followed by systemic changes in those events based on procedures in conditioning and modeling. Goal: to eliminate undesirable behaviors an increase desirable responses (P 18) Cognitive-Developmental Theory: children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world (Piaget) (P 19) Information Processing: human mind also be viewed as a symbol- manipulating system through which information flows. (P 21) Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and developing child’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns (P 23) Developmental Social Neuroscience: Studying the relationship between changes in the brain and emotional and social development (P 23) Ethology: concerned with the adaptive/survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history (P 24) Sensitive Period: a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. Boundaries are less well defined. Development can occur later, but harder to induce (P 24) Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide changes with age (P 25) Sociocultural Theory: focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation (Vygotsky) (P 25) Ecological Systems Theory: views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment (P 26) Microsystem: the innermost level of the environment consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child’s immediate surroundings Mesosystem: encompasses connections between microsystems (i.e. home, school, neighborhood, and child-care center) (P 27) Exosystem: consists of social settings that do not contain children but affects children’s experiences in immediate settings (P 27) Macrosystem: the outermost level consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources (P 28) Chronosystem: the temporal dimension of model (Brofenbrenner) (P 29) Dynamic Systems Perspective: child’s mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system. This system is dynamic/constantly in motion. A change in any part of it form physical to social-disrupts the current organism-environment relationship… when this happens, the child actively reorganizes his/her behavior so the components of the system work together again (P 29) Naturalistic Observation: one approach is to go into the field or natural environment and observe the behavior of interest (P 32) Structured Observation: the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response (P33) Clinical Interview: flexible, conversational style is used to probe for the participant’s point of view. (P 34) Structured Interview: each participant is asked the same questions in the same way. (P 35) Clinical/Case Study Method: brings together a wide range of info on one child, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores (P 35) Ethnography: a descriptive, qualitative technique but instead of aiming to understand a single individual, it is directed towards a culture of a distinct social group through participant observation (P 36) Correlational Design: researchers gather info on individuals, making no efforts to alter their experiences. They look at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior (P 38) Correlation Coefficient: number that describes how 2 measures/variables are associated with one another (P 38) Experimental Design: inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an even handed procedure to assign people to 2 or more treatment conditions. (P 38) Independent Variable: the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable (P 38) Dependent Variable: the one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable. (P 38-39) Random Assignment: using an unbiased procedure (i.e. flipping a coin), investigators increase the chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups. (P 39) Longitudinal Design: participants studied repeatedly and changes are noted as they get older. (P 41) Cohort Effects: Children born at the same time, who are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions. (P 41) Cross-sectional Design: groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time. (P 42) Sequential Design: conducting several similar cross-sectional and longitudinal studies at varying times. (P 43) Microgenetic Design: adaption of the longitudinal approach, presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions observers observe how change occurs. (P 44) Field of Child Development Information about child development is interdisciplinary Domains of Development Three broad domains: o Physical o Cognitive o Emotional/Social Periods of Development Prenatal: conception to birth Infancy & Toddlerhood: birth to 2 years Early Childhood: 2-6 years old Middle Childhood: 6-11 years old Adolescence: 11-18 years old New stage called “emerging adulthood” going from18 to mid- to late- twenties o Usually due to college, but these people have moved from adolescence but not fully taken on adult roles. Basic Issues Theories as vital tools: o Provide organizing framework for observation o Verified theories serve as basis for practical action Theory’s continued existence depends on “scientific verification” NO theory alone explains all aspects, but many theories helps advance knowledge so researchers can support, contradict, and integrate different point of views Easily organize theories by their stand on three basic issues: o Continuous or discontinuous? o One course of development or many? o Roles of nature VS nurture? Continuous or Discontinuous Development? 2 possibilities of most major theories: o Infants and preschoolers view the world much like adults; difference between immature or mature being simply one of amount or complexity o Move through developmental stages Stage concept assumes children go through rapid periods of transformation when going to the next stage, along with plateaus during which they are within a stage One Course of Development or Many? Field of child development becoming aware that children grow up with distinct contexts Contemporary theorists view contexts that shape development as many-layered/complex Personal-side: includes heredity, biological make up Environmental-side: includes immediate settings, and circumstances that don’t directly involve the children’s every day life Relative Influence of Nature vs. Nurture Nature: heredity information received from both parents Nurture: complex forces of physical and social world that influence biological make up and psychological experiences Theorists who emphasize stability typically stress the importance of heredity o If they regard environment they point out early experiences as establishing behavior Major disagreement throughout book: stability vs. plasticity Balanced Point of View Research support has gathered because of the complexity contributing to human change and challenges; debate continues but has sparked more balanced visions of child development Historical Foundations Contemporary theories of child development come from centuries of change in Western cultural values, philosophical thinkings, and scientific progress Medieval Times Clear awareness of children being vulnerable beings The Reformation Puritan belief rose the view that children were born evil and stubborn and needed to be civilized Philosophies of the Enlightenment John Locke: Behaviorism “Blank slate” View of “blank slate” led him to champion of nurture – power of environment to shape children Faith in nurture suggests many courses of development and high plasticity at later ages Jean-Jacques Rousseau: “Noble savages” natural right and wrong and plan for healthy growth Child-centered o Adult should be responsive to the child’s needs at the four stages: Infancy Childhood Late childhood Adolescence 2 influential concepts o Concept of stages o Concept of maturation Scientific Beginnings Darwin: Forefather of scientific child study Theory of evolution o Emphasized 2 related principles: Natural selection Survival of the fittest Normative Period Arnold Gesell student of Hall Regarded development as maturational process Mental Testing Movement Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Mid-Twentieth Century Theories Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud’s Theory: 3 parts to personality: o Id: largest portion of the mind, basic source of biological needs and desires o Ego: conscious, rational part, emerges in early infancy o Superego: conscience, develops with insistence of conformity between ages 3-6 First to stress the importance of parent-child relationship on development Criticized o Overemphasized influence of sexual feelings o Based on problems of sexually repressed adults o Never directly studied children Erikson’s Theory Psychological conflict, resolved along a continuum from positive to negative, determining healthy or maladaptive outcomes Contributions and Limitations of Psychoanalytic Theory Strength: emphasis on individual’s life history Psychoanalytic theorists accepts clinical/case study method Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Traditional Behavior Little Albert experiment Watson discovered classical conditioning B.F. Skinner discovered operant conditioning theory o Behavior can be increased when followed by reinforcements or decreased by punishments Social Learning Theory Bandura’s diverse factors to imitation: o History of reinforcement or punishment o Promise of reinforcement or punishment o Observation of model being reinforced of punished Contributions and Limitations of Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Too narrow of view of important environmental influences Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory Piaget’s Stages Central to his theory is adaptation Children are always correcting their ideas to achieve equilibrium Sensorimotor stage: cognitive development Preoperational stage: patterns become the symbolic and illogical thinking of preschoolers Concrete operational stage: organized reasoning Formal operational stage: thought becomes abstract Piaget adapted clinical method to clinical interview Contributions and Limitations of Piaget’s Theory Encouraged development of educational philosophies and programs to emphasize children’s discovery learning and contact with environment Recent Theoretical Perspectives Information Processing Information is actively coded, transformed, and organized from the moment it reaches input to the moment it responds to output Used to clarify processing of social information Continuous Developmental Neuroscience Developmental cognitive neuroscience – area of investigation due to research expansion on information processing Complementary to developmental cognitive neuroscience is a new area called developmental social neuroscience Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology The roots of Ethology can be traced to Darwin Imprinting is best known as an observable behavior pattern promoting survival Imprinting led to major concept of the critical period in child development o Limited time span where the child is biologically prepared to acquire adaptive behaviors but needs support from an appropriate adaptive stimulating environment But the term sensitive period applies better to human development
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