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Psych 001-Week 2

by: Adele

Psych 001-Week 2 PSYS 001

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These notes specifically cover the topic of memory-kinds of memory, errors in recollection, etc
Intro to Psychological Science
Class Notes
Psychology, Psychological Science, memory




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adele on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 001 at University of Vermont taught by Rudiger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Week of Jan 25 -31 st Lecture Notes on Memory  Memory technique: o memory mansion  associate a card with something (usually a person)  Build story with said characters and use associations to memorize order of decks of cards  Nature of memory-“model” of memoryno necessary physical analogy o Theories developed by influence  Memory conceptualized using types, stages and processes o Types: explicit and implicit o Stages: sensory, short-term, long-term o Process: encoding, storage, retrieval  Explicit memory-requires conscious awareness o Two main types:  semantic memory: involves facts and general knowledge (history)  episodic memory: personally experienced events (personal history)  sensory memory-sort of like a one time thing  short-term memory is limited o 7 plus or minus 2 is the number of things that can be help simultaneously in short term memory o can be expanded using chunking-grouping a larger number of things into clumps so they are easier to remember  ex. 956 234 9230 would be nine hundred and fifty six, two hundred and thirty four, nine thousand two- hundred and thirty. Instead of seven things, you have to remember three things  Learning through memory (not in textbook) o Testing is a potent learning tools o Correlation between opinions of learning tools and their actual effects o Experiment: Given the same task, independent variable=instructions given on how to conduct the task. They were then given a test to take that would measure how well they returned information (both a verbatim and inferential test).  4 groups: read info, read X2, as read build a concept map, answer open ended questions (retrieval practice)  result: the participants thought that reading the text X2 was the best studying tool but their results showed answering questions was the best way o Experiment #2-clumping V spacing  People were shown 5 out of 6 paintings per artist that commissioned for this project specifically. There wthe 5 different artists. They were then shown the 6 painting and asked to identify the artist.  They were shown/taught to them in different ways: either massed together (all pictures by same artist) or spaced (mixed up)  Most participants thought massing would give them better result. However, spacing turned out to produce better results. o Desirable Difficulties-Elizabeth and Robert Bjork  Studying advice for optimal results:  Vary the conditions (aka move around)  Break it up in smaller increments  Don’t study for one subject all at once (don’t block)  Test yourself to see what you know/don’t know  Experiment: Three different types of review schedules were given for people to follow o 1) study once-take quiz (massed) o 2) everyone one the same spaced generic schedule o 3) computer program creates individual study schedule based on performance (personalized and spaced schedule)  result: best performance at end of semester was by those who had followed third study schedule  things that help learning: sleep and physical activity  Do not study in the same space o Being in different contexts means that there is more that can prompt your memory  Implicit memory-unconscious o Three types:  Procedural: muscle/cognitive memory  Priming-increased identification of words and objects  Learning via classical conditioning-pair unlearned behavior with a natural stimulus  Errors in Recollections o Forgetting appears to also be advantageous o Misinformation effect: new information changes old memory/how we remember things o Reality of trauma is that is often comes from intrusive memory rather than repression o Often add parts of one memory into a different memory- therefore pairing two events together that do not necessarily belong that way o Issues with psychotherapy: tendency to ask leading questions which causes people to remember things that did not actually happen.  Anomalous research: o Deviates from a general rule o It does not follow the general definition of order/how we expect things naturally occur o Psychic power: a lot more research that needs to be done. Cannot say that it definitely doesn’t exist. Text book Notes: Unit 7: Memory (Acrobatiq Platform) Module 16: Types and Stages of Memory  Memory-capacity to acquire, store and retrieve the information and habits that guide our behavior  Information can be accessed through association and activation via related concepts  The brain multitasks  Synapses operate using electrochemical process  Existing memory=used to keep and interpret incoming info. Retrieval of a memory changes the memory itself.  Memories are constructed and therefore not exact replicas Types of memory  Two main types: o Explicit-semantic, episodic o Implicit-procedural, priming, classical conditioning  Explicit Memory o Knowledge/experiences that can be purposely and consciously remembered o Episodic memory: firsthand experiences/episodes o Semantic memory: knowledge of facts and concepts concerning the world  Ways to measure memory o A recall test-measure of explicit memory that involves retrieving information that was learned before. Requires a search strategy to recall the information  Ex. Use on an essay test o Recognition test-measure of memory that involves figuring out whether or not info has been seen/learned before  Ex. Multiple choice test o Recall tends to be more difficult than recognition as recall involves both generating an answer and determining whether or not it is correct o Relearning (or savings)-assess how much faster info is processed/learned when it is studied after it has been previously learned but forgotten  Allows people to access memory in quantity/speed VS correct  Implicit memory o Influence of experience on behavior (may not be conscious) o Three types: procedural memory, classical conditioning effects and priming  Procedural memory: unexplained knowledge of how to do things  Walking/motor and cognitive skills  Classical conditioning effects: learn (mostly without effort/awareness), to associate neutral stimuli with another stimulus. This creates a natural/automatic response.  Priming-changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently.  Ex. Word fragment test/enhanced identification of objects or words o Implicit memories are often formed and used automatically Stages of Memory: Sensory, Short-Term, and Long-Term  Memory starts as sensory memory, moves to short-term memory and then to long-term memory  Whether or not a memory will be kept depends on how it is attended and processed  Sensory memory: brief storage of sensory info o Purpose is to allow humans to see world as unbroken stream of events and not fragments. Gives the brain processing time o Iconic memory-visual sensory memory o Echoic memory-auditory sensory memory  Echoic memories can last up to about four seconds VS iconic which last only instants o Eidetic memory-“photographic memory”-people can report details of images over an extended period of time. They often have other psychological disorders. o Echoic imagery-like photographic memory but with sound  Ex. Ability to remember a song and play it back after hearing it only once. o Short-Term Memory (STM)  Where small amounts of info can be kept for a few seconds at a time (normally less than a minute)  Can store between 5-9 pieces of info at a time. Usually the number is 7  Working memory-process we used to decipher, modify, interpret and store info in STM  Where we make sense of information  Not store of memory like STM but =memory procedures  Central executive-part of working memory that directs attention and processing. Chooses process that will be best for a given task.  Way to prevent deterioration of info in STM=to use working memory to train it.  Maintenance rehearsal-repeating information mentally/out loud in an attempt to keep it in the memory  Chunking-organizing information into smaller group so at to try and increase the number of items that can be held in STM  Does not increase speed of working memory  Info that makes it through STM may go into long-term memory (LTM)-memory storage that can keep info for extended periods of time (daysyears)  Limitless Module 17: How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory  Explicit memory: When stop using information-it slowly fades from long-term memory  Implicit memory: less likely to fade with disuse but eventually will happen.  relearning  How do we process information we want to remember? o Encoding, storage and then retrieval  Encoding and storage: o Encoding-process in which we take events and turn them into memories. o Elaborate encoding-process new info in a way that makes it more meaningful/relevant. Therefore, we are more likely to remember it. Normally involves making it more relevant to ourselfs  Ex. Relate things to that which you already know  Organize information  Self-reference effect-relate material to own experiences/self  Shown during work done by Rogers, Kuiper and Kirker  Hermann Ebbinghaus: His Study of Memory o He was the only subject in his research o Tries to memorize list of nonsense syllables (ex. DIF) o Findings: retention drops in the beginning but levels out over time.  Called the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve  Levels out around 20% at approx. day 30 o Spacing effect-learning is improved/more efficient when the same amount of studying is broken up into smaller chucks and spaced out.  Distributed practice-done over time  Massed practice-all at same time (in one block) o Overlearning-should keep practicing/studying after we think we already know the material. Often think mastery has been achieved when truly has not.  Retrieval –process of reactivating info that has been stored o Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon-when we know we know something but can’t exactly think of it o Context-dependent learning-increase in retrieval when external situation/environment in which the info was originally learned matches the situation when it is being remembered o State-dependent learning-superior retrieval of memories when person is in same mental state/physiological state as when info is being encoded o Serial position curve-shows variations in ability to retrieve info  More likely to remember info presented at start and ending of list  Serial position effect-only memorizing things at start and end of list.  Cause by:  primacy effect-tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented at the start of a list. when hear words tend to start practicing them- maintenance rehearsal.  recency effect-tendency to better remember stimuli presented at end of list. can be explained by maintenance rehearsal in STM. o Retroactive interference-learning something new impairs ability to retrieve information stored previously o Proactive interference-earlier learning inhibits ability to encode new info  The Structure of Long-Term Memory o Categories-how memories are stored in LTM-in networks of associated memories that have commonalities  Associated concepts are connected via spreading activation (activating one element in category activated associated things)  Some have defining features (things that are true of ALL memories in the category). Hard to define.  Prototype-member of category that=most average or typical  Other memories within category can be compared to this one.  Mental categories=occasionally referred to as schemas-patterns of info/knowledge in LTM that aids up in memory organization  Ex. Stereotypesgroup schemas  Maintenance rehearsal STM  Elaborate encodingLTM Module 18: The Biology of Memory  Best to think of brain as having two levels o Neurons o Brain areas  Long-term potentiation (LTP)-slow strengthening of synaptic connections btwn neurons due to frequent stimulation o Suggests that chemicals are involved in memory o Glutamate=very important neurotransmitter in context of memory  Period of consolidation-time period when LTP occurs and memories are stored. Aka neural pathways are reinforced o Tends to happen during sleep  Memory occurs via interactions between old and new brain structures o Hippocampus-preprocessor and elaborator of information  Important to explicit memory  Helps encode info concerning spatial relationships, context of event experienced and associations between memories  Aids in transition of memory from STM to LTM  Organizes explicit memories o Cerebellum-implicit memories  Cerebellum-more active when learning associations and priming  Involved in learning procedural tasks o Amygdala-emotional memories  Related to storage of emotional memories-mostly fear.  When damaged, lose ability to associate new events and things with positive or negative correlations. o memory is stored throughout brain, not just in one place Module 19: Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition Source Monitoring: Did It Really Happy?  Cognitive biases: errors in judgment or memory that are due to inappropriate use of cognitive processes.  Misinformation effects-errors in memory that happen when new info changes or influences existing memories o Makes it so that can no longer tell what info comes from actual event and influences o Makes it so sometimes remember thing that never actually happened  Source monitoring-ability to accurately identify source of a memory. o Sleeper effect-attitude change over time due to fact that forget the original source of information  Overconfidence-people tend to be overly certain about their ability to properly make judgments and remember events o Flashbulb memory-emotional and vivid memory of strange event that people remember better than is perhaps usual. It is created when the remembered event occurs at the same time as intense emotion. Schematic Processing: Distortions Based on Expectations  Confirmation Bias-tendency to confirm and rationalize existing memories instead of challenging them. Created in part of schemas. o Schemata (pl. form of schema)-mental representations of earth as are created and changed using assimilation and accommodation as a person experiences more  Assimilation-using already created schema to interpret new info  Accommodation-altering an existing schema to fit new info  Functional fixedness-happens when individual’s schemas prevent from using objects in a new way  Salience and Selective Memory o Tend to remember things that are more salient (that attract our attention)  Ex. Things that are colourful, moving, unexpected o People tend to ignore base rates (probability of events occurring across a bigger population) o Selective memory-remember events because they are more salient st o Cognitive accessibility-phenomenon in which a person’s 1 person POV makes them overestimate degree to which they played a part in an event/project Heuristic Processing: Availability and Representativeness  Heuristics, Probability, and the Gambler’s Fallacy o Heuristics-strategies used to process information that are often useful but can lead to errors if not used properly o Algorithms-formula type strategies to process information that can always ensure a correct answer o Representativeness heuristic-ignoring more relevant statistical information and basing judgments on info that we see to best represent what we believe will happen  Gambler’s fallacy-see something happen many times in a row and assume the next time the same thing will happen  Probability-true likelihood of something happening.  Calculated by dividing number of possible favorable outcomes and dividing it by the total number of outcomes o Availability heurist  Tendency to make judgments about the probability of an event happening based on how readily available the information is to access Counterfactual Thinking  Counterfactual thinking is the human tendency to experience and think about events using the hypothetical “what could or might have been” idea. Psychology in Everyday Life: Cognitive Biases in the Real World:  Accessibility bias can be mitigated by teaching people to consider various alternatives rather than a single one Belief in the Paranormal (Psi)  Psi-used to refer to range of strange aspects of human cognition/perception o Two types:  Psi-gamma-phenomena that involve information exchange/transfer (ex. ESP)  Psi-kappa-phenomena that involves transfer of matter/energy (telekinesis)


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