PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 2 notes
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 2 notes Psych 3070
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3070 at Bowling Green State University taught by Patrick Nebl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality- Spring Semester 2016 Week 2 Problems with sampling and surveying Volunteer bias o You cannot ethically force people to take part in a study and they may also choose not to This makes random sampling impossible The type person who chooses to respond may be different from those who do not choose to respond 95% of people respond, but what about the other 5% who didn’t? Defining terms o You have to give a detailed description of what you’re asking Your definition of something may be different from someone else’s definition of the same thing o 40% of college students count oral sex as “having sex,” and 20% do not count anal sex as “having sex” Participants may intentionally exaggerate or misrepresent themselves o Social desirability- to appear better than you are and to avoid the stigma Why is this a common threat in the sex research field? People will try to understand the hypothesis of the scientist o Demand characteristics- to prove/disprove the researcher’s hypothesis o Inaccuracy of recall People are poor at answering “why” questions Retrospective recall may be mistaken or biased without the participant even knowing it Childhood experiences Correlation- the degree of relationship between two variables Can be positive or negative Positive: both variables increase/decrease, Negative: one variable increases while the other decreases or vice versa In human sexuality: o Edward Laumann found a positive correlation between marital sex and masturbation “the more you masturbate, the more sex you will have”- WRONG Correlation does not mean demonstration o People who do masturbate are more likely to have sex because masturbation increases the sex drive o Having sex increases sex drive which leads to masturbation o Some third variable, stress, effects both amount of sex and masturbation o What causes what? o All we know is that there is a relationship between the two Observation and case study Direct observation o A way to get around the issues and problems of a survey o Masters and Johnson directly observed intercourse rather than asking about intercourse o Hawthorne effect- people changing the way they behave because they know they are being observed Case studies o Detailed study of one person o Useful with people who have particular circumstances o Not applicable to the whole world and is prone to observer bias o Things that have already occurred outside of science o Helpful because we now can study things that are regularly unethical Ex: Little Albert- case of classical conditioning where a little boy would hold a rat and a loud noise would scare him and make him cry. Now whenever he sees a rat or something like it, he cries. Then why do we use surveys if they have so many problems? Surveys get inside your head while observation gets to see your behavior. Experimental research Independent variable o Variable that is changed by the experimenter o Is independent of all other variables Dependent variable o Outcome variable that is measured o Is dependent of the independent variable Experimenter changes one variable, holding everything else constant, and is able to assume causation Most basic experiment o Experimental group- exposed to the independent variable o Control group- treated exactly like the experimental group except they are not exposed to the independent variable Types of evidence in human sexuality Anatomy and physiology o What male and female structures are the same? o Penile plethysmograph- measures arousal when blood goes to the penis o Vaginal photoplethysmograph- measures arousal when the inner vagina changes color Endocrinology and neuroscience Survey research o Are males more interested in one-night stands? Case studies and animal studies Evolutionary psychology- knowledge and principles from evolutionary biology are put to use for research on the structure of the human mind Can be applied to any topic in psychology Mind was designed by natural selection to solve adaptive problems People with good traits will produce more children We have unique physiological and psychological adaptations Evolutionary thinking that is NOT TRUE: Human behavior is genetically determined o 50% of this course will deal with not genetically determined things height: most genes, but some from childhood nutrition If it’s evolutionary, we can’t change it o If you don’t want to sweat, live somewhere cold and you won’t sweat Current mechanisms are optimally designed o Sometimes you sweat when you don’t want to The naturalistic fallacy o Evolutionary perspective does not make something morally okay or justifiable Anatomy and Physiology External Female Genitalia o Vulva “Covering” External female genitalia o Mons Veneris Translates to “Mount of Venus” Fatty tissue overlaying pubic bones Location of many nerve endings Location of majority of pubic hair Not any really function except protecting the pubic bone o Labia Labia Majora Outer, major “lips” Has public hair From Mons Veneris to Perineum Labia Minora Inner, minor “lips” Hairless, pink area inside Labia Majora Stays closed when there is no sexual arousal Bartholin’s glands: alkaline fluid, counter acidity o sperm can survive better in non-acidic places Covers and protects urethral and vaginal openings when not aroused o Clitoris Clitoral hood Top of Labia Minora Covers clitoris while unstimulated Sensitive and engorges with stimulation Clitoris Same embryonic tissue as the penis About 1 inch long Location of most nerve endings and highest site of sexual pleasure o No known function beside sexual pleasure Engorges with blood during arousal Expands and grows when aroused o Vaginal opening Vestibular area Bulbcavernous muscle and Vestibular Bulbs: contract and swell during sex Hymen: partially covering vaginal opening until broken Vaginas can easily contract pathogens, so it covers and protects the vaginal opening Can be broken through sports endeavors but usually first intercourse o Urethral opening Between clitoris and vaginal opening Urine passes from bladder through urethra o Breasts Not part of female reproduction system, secondary sex characteristic Mammary glands 15-20 in each breast, each connected to the nipple by a duct Prolactin causes milk production Oxytocin causes milk ejection Size of breast does not change the number of mammary glands Internal Female anatomy o Vagina 3-5 inches long unstimulated but elastic During arousal it will dip and expand 3 layers of wall, vascularized with blood vessels Fluid released from mucosa lining provides lubrication Vaginal opening is sensitive Inner 2/3 of the vagina relatively insensitive to touch Pubococcygeus muscle surrounds the vaginal walls and is more richly supplies with nerves Has neurons that allows you to feel farther than the rd first 3 of the vagina o Uterus Location of developing fetus, capable of great expansion during pregnancy Cervix is narrow end of uterus at the back of the vagina Fundus is broader part of the uterus 3 layers: endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium endometrium: rich with blood after ovulation, either fertilized egg implants here or is released during menstruation o Ovaries Female glands Same embryonic tissue as testicles Produces eggs (ovum) and hormones (estrogen and progesterone) 300,00 to 400,000 in each ovary at the beginning of the life women do not produce eggs in their lifetime each egg surrounded by follicle o Fallopian tubes Extended from the uterus Fimbria brush against ovaries Not physically connected to the ovaries Typical site of fertilization not the uterus External male genitalia o Penis Reproductive and urinary function Urine and ejaculate escape here Soft, loose skin that tightens and hardens during stimulation when spongy tissue engorges with blood The body has 3 cylinders of spongy tissue: 2 corpora cavernosa on top and 1 corpus spongiosum (urethra within) Corona is raised rim near the tip and the most sensitive area o Scrotum Sac which holds the testicles outside the body cavity Sperm production optimal at temperatures lower than internal body temperature, which is why it is on the outside Many sweat glands and muscle fibers that contract or relax for temperature regulation Internal male anatomy o Testicles Seminiferous tubules produce millions of sperm per day 1-3 feet in length but coiled Leydig cells produce androgens (male hormones) Suspended by spermatic cord which includes: blood vessels, nerves, muscle, and the vas deferens Stem from abdominal cavity in fetus about 2 months before birth (2-5% fail to do do) o The duct system Epididymis: seminiferous tubules coverage to this 20 foot coiled tube at the top of the testicle, which sperm take 6 weeks to travel Vas deferens: sperm pass from the testicle toward the prostate gland, many are stored in ampulla (expanded part of the vas deferens) Ejaculatory ducts: muscle contracts force sperm through the prostate gland and to urethra
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