First Week of Notes for Medieval Art History
First Week of Notes for Medieval Art History 483
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 483 at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Medieval Art History Spring 2016 Test 1 Notes Introduction to Medieval Art The Medieval Period and The Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of about one thousand years o Viewed by Renaissance scholars as a sort of interlude or period of decline o The period occurred after the times of Classical Greece and Rome and before the revival of learning which emerged during the Renaissance This period has also been referred to as the “Dark Ages” th The Medieval period began in the 4 century with the battle of the Milvian Bridge o Roman Emperor Constantine o The Christian monogram, the Chi Rho – on their shields The Medieval period ended in the 15 century with the discovery of the Americas by Portuguese navigators o Sailed the water with the Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ Chi Rho = Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ = The Early Christian Church and the Bible Followers of Christianity declared Jesus’ birth to be the beginning of a new era o Known as Anno Domini or AD o Today we refer to the time after Jesus’ birth as the Common Era or CE The Jewish scriptures form the foundation of what Christians call the Old Testament The central tenets of Christianity are contained within the New Testament o Gospels – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John o Epistles - St. Paul’s letters to the newly-formed Christian communities o Acts of the Apostles - documents the establishment of Christianity as an organized religion o Book of Revelation - St. John’s description of the Apocalypse Vulgate = Latin edition of the Bible translated by Saint Jerome Early forms of Christian worship were very simple Jesus gathered with his apostles for the Jewish Feast of the Passover o When Jesus defined the bread and wine as his own body and blood, he established the sacrament of Holy Communion o Tituli = official Christian homes where members of the faith reenacted the Last Supper There were about 25 official homes in Rome where this happened – turned into a ritual after – this is how communion got started A more elaborate worship service evolved in the 4 century o The service was divided into 2 parts: Liturgy of the Word Open to the public Liturgy of the Eucharist Open only to initiates Transubstantiation – when the bread and wine miraculously become the flesh and blood of Christ Another important ritual in the early Catholic Church was the initiation ceremony of baptism o Like other Church rituals, it evolved into an elaborate, formal ceremony presided over by the head of the Christian community, the bishop o In baptism, the initiates symbolically “died” and were reborn in Christ Christians utilize two different types of time: Historical and Liturgical o The Western Christian liturgical year is based on Christmas (December 25 ) th o The Eastern Christian Orthodox liturgical year is based on Easter o Events in the Gospels are typically grouped into 3 “cycles:” The Marian (or Nativity) cycle – (Christmas events) The Public Ministry of Cycle – (the miracles Jesus performed) The Passion Cycle – (The death of Jesus) In the Early years of Christianity, rival religions influenced the development of the Christian faith o Religious cults incorporated music, incense, and sacred imagery into their rituals o Christians adopted many of these elements into the Mass to enhance the emotional power and immediacy of their worship, as well By the 3 Century, monotheistic cults and religions such as Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Sol Invictus (meaning triumphant sun), spread throughout the empire The influence of such monotheistic faiths on Christianity is evident in the following: o The designation of Sunday as the Christian sacred day th o The use of December 25 to celebrate the birth of Christ
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