Biology 1 Week 3 Notes
Biology 1 Week 3 Notes BSC2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by clb13m on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Steven Marks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biological Science 1 in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Know the major structural differences between animal and plant cells. o Plant cells have central vacuoles (bag of salty fluid that increases size of cell) with minimal cytosol increase, thylakoids (in the chloroplast), chloroplasts, and cell walls. Animal cells doesn’t have any of that. Know what the differences in cell structure are between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells o Bacteria are prokaryotes. Animals, fungi, protists, and plants are eukaryotes. o Similarities: Selectively permeable plasma membrane; cytoplasm (semifluid mixture of water and organic and inorganic compounds); chromosomes (carry genes; made of DNA and protein); ribosomes (make proteins) o Differences: Eukaryotes have internal, membrane bound organelles – particularly a nucleus, prokaryotes do not Be able to describe the structure of biological membranes (phospholipid bilayers + membrane proteins; the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids cluster together on the inside of the bilayer and the hydrophilic heads (with the charged phosphate group) project outward where they can interact with water. o The core of the cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer (hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail). o There are integral membrane proteins (embedded in the phospholipid bilayer); parts of protein that does not touch water is hydrophobic. o There are peripheral membrane proteins (attached to integral proteins); they’re hydrophilic. o Fluidity is the ability of the phospholipids (and membrane proteins) to move. Most phospholipid movement is lateral. Membrane fluidity is affected phospholipid composition – saturated versus unsaturated. Unsaturated means more fluidity; saturated means more viscous. Cholesterol buffers change fluidity against changes in temperature (keeps it more fluid even if temperature drops) Be able to list the functions of membrane proteins (transport, surface for chemical reactions, hormone perception, celltocell attachment, cellcell recognition, attachment points of cytoskeleton and extracellular proteins to the membrane). o Transport moves molecules across membrane o Surface for chemical reactions – enzymes o Hormone perception receptors; listens and responds , makes protein receptor respond to hormone signals. o Celltocell attachment they attach o Cellcell recognition recognizes each cell to build tissue o Attachment points of cytoskeleton and Extracellular proteins to membrane – attaches protein to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) Know that biological membranes are semipermeable (more permeable to somesolutes than others) o Bigger substance/more charge = less permeable o Nonpolar substances move easiest = more permeable (O2 and CO2 move easily without transport proteins) o Increase in size restricts movement across membrane (needs transport proteins) o Increase in charge restricts movement across membrane (needs transport proteins) o More polar the molecule restricts the movement across the membrane because bilayer has hydrophobic (nonpolar) tail. Understand the terms passive transport and diffusion, and osmosis. Understand the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. o Passive transport – transports small molecules without the requirement of ATP; moves substances from high to low concentration o Diffusion – moves small molecules from high to low concentration o Simple diffusion – doesn’t use transport proteins/channels/carrier proteins; substances pass through semipermeable membrane o Facilitated diffusion – needs channels/carrier proteins o Active transport – cell uses energy to move substances o Osmosis – diffusion of water from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration
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