Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
Reviews for Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
Epidemiology Study of Disease Occurrence and Transmission Emerging Infectious Disease Mutation of organism to new serovar antigenic type Migration of humans and animals into new environments Travel War and natural disasters Decline in vaccination rates Climatic changes Microbe of the Day Vibrio cholerae Gram negative I w 3323 a curved rod Toxnn alters ax we sodium pump in intestinal cells 9 fluid loss Cholera 18003 Cholera the Disease Entry oral Colonization small intestine Symptoms nausea diarrhea muscle cramps shock First Cholera Pandemic Second Cholera Pandemic John Snow and the Pump Handle Cholera John Snow and New York cholera in 1854 London 1 httpwwwphuclae duepisnowhtml quot0 John Snow John Snow is credited by many with developing the modern field of epidemiology London in the 1850 s Germ theory of disease not widely accepted People lived in very crowded conditions with water and privies in yard NY 1864 900 people in 2 buildings 180 deep x 5 stories 1 pump a block away privy in yard Water Supply London John Snow s Observations People with cholera developed immediate digestive problems cramps vomiting diarrhea Face feet hands shriveled and turned blue died in less than a day Probably spread by vomiting and diarrhea Snow s Dot Map 39 Death from Cholera Cholera Epidemiology Comparison of pump location with cholera deaths first 3 days of epidemic in 1854 Cholera Epidemiology 39 Of 83 people only 10 lived closer to a different pump than Broad Street 39 Of these 10 5 preferred taste of Broad Street water and 3 were children who went to nearby school Cholera Epidemiology 0 Snow convinced neighborhood council to let him remove handle from water pump on Broad Street new cases declined dramatically 0 Many on council not convinced by his evidence Snow Index Case Snow Index Case Index case is first person to become i 40 Broad Street husband and infant child became i Wife soaked diapers in pail and emptied pail into cistern next to pump The Great Experiment Two water companies supplied central London Customers mixed in same neighborhood Snow went door to door asking which water company served home and compared locations with cholera data The Great Experiment 0 Lambeth Company water intake upstream of London sewage outfall into Thames 0 Southwark amp Vauxhall Company water intake downstream of sewage outfall The Great Experiment Houses Deaths DeathS 100000 8 and V 40046 1263 315 Lambeth 26107 98 37 Cholera in the 19905 Epidemic in Peru beginning 1991 From 19911994 Cases 1041422 Deaths 9642 09 Originated at coast spread inland CHOLERA CUMULATIVE INCIDENCE RATES BY COUNTRY 1991 1995 World Cholera 200001 llolem 10002001 Ff L v i l V quotVt 4 7 D mum WWW 1 mm W WWW mm W Why Has Cholera Re emerged Deteriorating sanitary facilities as larger population moves into shanty towns Trujullo Peru fear of cancer from chlorination so water untreated Use of wastewater on crops Africa civil wars and drought caused migrations into camps How Has Cholera Reemerged Simultaneous appearance along whole coast of Peru Traveled in ship ballast Traveled in plankton from Asia Always present in local zooplankton copepods but dormant until triggered by Copepod Carrying Vibrio cholerae El Ni o La Ni a Cholera and El Ni o Periodic warming of water near coast of Central and South America Large plankton blooms especially in coastal waters with nutrients from sewage runoff Cholera and El Ni o Cholera in Bangladesh also seen to uctuate with El Ni o but with 11 month lag Rita Colwell and multinational group studying link between climate and cholera Satellite and surface data used to show cholera incidence is related to sea surface temperature Cholera from Space Percent Cholera Cholera and Sea Surface Temperature Ch olera 3 SST N 1 Temperature deg C 4 Jan Mar Apr May May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0 1 31 2 1 1 31 30 3 29 28 28 27 27 Cholera in the 19905 Cholera 0139 emerges in Asia Different 0 coat antigen 99 genetic identity 0 antigen is how human immune system recognizes and protects against V cholerae More people susceptible Cholera Antibiotic Resistance Cholera is becoming resistant to several antibiotics I s ow 9
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'