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Week 1

by: Caitlin Acierno

Week 1 Nutri Sci 132

Caitlin Acierno
GPA 3.0
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About this Document

These are the notes from lecture
Nutrition Today
Peter Anderson
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutri Sci 132 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Peter Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Questions for thought?  Which are useful strategies for cancer prevention? o Vitamin supplements o Not smoking o Exercise o Diet that is rich in fruit and vegetables o Spam Nutrients  Water  Macronutrients o Carbohydrate (CHO) o Protein o Lipid (fat)  Micronutrients o Vitamins o Minerals  Non-nutrients o Alcohol  The only non-nutrient that gives us energy o Phytonutrients Nutrients help for our structures  Water o Cell turgidity  Lipid o Cell membranes  Protein o Muscle, organs  Minerals o Bone teeth Nutrients also help fuel our energy  Kilocalories o Carbohydrates—4 kcal/gram  Sugar, starch o Protein—4 kcal/gram o Fat—9 kcal/gram o Alcohol—7 kcal/gram Nutrients also help regulate our metabolism  Chemical reactions  Cellular procession  Synthesis o Protein catalyst—enzymes  Controls and facilitates a chemical reaction in the body  Energy release from nutrients  Fluid balance Anecdotal evidence  Based on one person’s experience  Vitamin X cures headaches o Different causes o Medication interactions o Allergic reaction?—not risk free o Dosage o Placebo effect o Unreliable reporter o Coincidence  How safely can you generalize experience from one person to another. Scientific Method—Next lecture The Scientific Method  Ask a question  Formulate a hypothesis  Test hypothesis o Conduct experiment o Evaluate outcome  Confer or reject the hypothesis. o If reject, possibly reformulate the hypothesis and try again. Experimental design  Experimental group receives treatment  Control group does not receive the treatment  Groups otherwise identical  Intervention verses observation Experimental design in nutrition  Case study  Epidemiological study o Natural experiments conducted by a population on its self o In a large population there usually is variation in exposure.  Do differences in outcome overtime correlate with exposure?  Correlation o Does not prove cause and effect Case control study  Match cases with controls  Compare exposure levels o Did cases receive more or less exposure than controls? Interventions  Animals o Experimental grouptreatment o Control groupno treatment o Compare the outcomes  Human clinical trials o Experimental grouptreatment o Control groupno treatment o Compare the outcomes o Considerably more complicated than animals  Hard to get same kind of control  Genetic uniformity  Hard to control the diet  Randomization  Placebo control  Patients don’t know if they are getting a treatment or not  Double blind the study o Even the person handing out the pills can’t know who is getting the treatment and who isn’t getting the treatment.  Timeline o Considered the “gold standard.” The best kind of study? Control Generalizability  --^--------------------------------------^-----------------------------------^-- Animal study Human clinical trials Epidemiology Studies There is no perfect study. It is risky to base your whole life based on one single study.


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