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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutri Sci 132 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Peter Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Questions for thought? Which are useful strategies for cancer prevention? o Vitamin supplements o Not smoking o Exercise o Diet that is rich in fruit and vegetables o Spam Nutrients Water Macronutrients o Carbohydrate (CHO) o Protein o Lipid (fat) Micronutrients o Vitamins o Minerals Non-nutrients o Alcohol The only non-nutrient that gives us energy o Phytonutrients Nutrients help for our structures Water o Cell turgidity Lipid o Cell membranes Protein o Muscle, organs Minerals o Bone teeth Nutrients also help fuel our energy Kilocalories o Carbohydrates—4 kcal/gram Sugar, starch o Protein—4 kcal/gram o Fat—9 kcal/gram o Alcohol—7 kcal/gram Nutrients also help regulate our metabolism Chemical reactions Cellular procession Synthesis o Protein catalyst—enzymes Controls and facilitates a chemical reaction in the body Energy release from nutrients Fluid balance Anecdotal evidence Based on one person’s experience Vitamin X cures headaches o Different causes o Medication interactions o Allergic reaction?—not risk free o Dosage o Placebo effect o Unreliable reporter o Coincidence How safely can you generalize experience from one person to another. Scientific Method—Next lecture The Scientific Method Ask a question Formulate a hypothesis Test hypothesis o Conduct experiment o Evaluate outcome Confer or reject the hypothesis. o If reject, possibly reformulate the hypothesis and try again. Experimental design Experimental group receives treatment Control group does not receive the treatment Groups otherwise identical Intervention verses observation Experimental design in nutrition Case study Epidemiological study o Natural experiments conducted by a population on its self o In a large population there usually is variation in exposure. Do differences in outcome overtime correlate with exposure? Correlation o Does not prove cause and effect Case control study Match cases with controls Compare exposure levels o Did cases receive more or less exposure than controls? Interventions Animals o Experimental grouptreatment o Control groupno treatment o Compare the outcomes Human clinical trials o Experimental grouptreatment o Control groupno treatment o Compare the outcomes o Considerably more complicated than animals Hard to get same kind of control Genetic uniformity Hard to control the diet Randomization Placebo control Patients don’t know if they are getting a treatment or not Double blind the study o Even the person handing out the pills can’t know who is getting the treatment and who isn’t getting the treatment. Timeline o Considered the “gold standard.” The best kind of study? Control Generalizability --^--------------------------------------^-----------------------------------^-- Animal study Human clinical trials Epidemiology Studies There is no perfect study. It is risky to base your whole life based on one single study.
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