NU 426 Community Health week 2 notes
NU 426 Community Health week 2 notes NU 426
Popular in Community Health Across the Lifespan
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Black on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NU 426 at Jackson State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Community Health Across the Lifespan in Nursing and Health Sciences at Jackson State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
▯ Epidemiology in Community Health Care – Chapter 7 ▯ 1. Explore the historical roots of epidemiology. Ancient Times: Hippocrates (460 to 375 BC) MiddleAges: Plague/Black Death(1348-1349) 18th century: Florence Nightingale (1820 to 1910) 19th century: Modern epidemiology 2. Explain host, agent, and environmental model. Host:Asusceptible human or animal that harbors a pathogen, or “agent.” Agent: Pathogen. Environment: Factors surounding a host that contribute to resistance or vulnerability to an agent. 3. Describe theories of causality in health and illness. Chain of causation: ▯ 4. Define immunity and compare passive immunity, active immunity, cross- immunity, and herd immunity. Immunity: resistance to a specific disease or condition. Passive immunity: short term immunity. Ex. immunuglobulin injections, or transfer of maternal antibodies from mother to fetus through the placenta. Active immunity: long-term immunity. Ex. the body is exposed to the flu, and begins producing it’s own antibodies to the flu. Cross-immunity: resistance to one pathogen also provides protection against another pathogen. Ex. cows vaccinated against Clostridium haemolyticum are also resistant to Clostridium novyi. 5. Explain how epidemiologists determine populations at risk. Biological factors such as lifestyle, environment, and system of healthcare influence risk positively or negatively. Measurement of relative risk ratio: incidence rate in exposed group/incidence rate in unexposed group 6. Identify the four stages of a disease or health condition. Susceptibility stage Subclinical disease stage Incubation period Induction period Clinical disease stage Resolution stage 7. List the major sources of epidemiologic information. Vital statistics Census data Reportable diseases Disease registries Environmental monitoring National Center for Health Statistics Health surveys Informal observational studies Scientific studies 8. Distinguish between incidence and prevalence in health and illness states. Incidence: refers to all new cases of a disease or health condition appearing during a given time Number of persons developing a disease divided by total number at risk per unit of time ▯ Prevalence: all of the people with a particular health condition existing in a given population at a given point in time ▯ Number of persons with a characteristic divided by total number in population ▯ 9. Discuss the types of epidemiologic studies that are useful for researching aggregate health. Cross-sectional Study - study of a subset of a population, which is representative of the demographic of the whole population, *at one specific point in time.* Disadvantages: often unable to include data on confounding factors. Retrospective Study - looks back at events which have already happened. Disadvantages: poor record keeping and other factors can lead to selection bias. Prospective Study - follows a group of individuals over time who are similar, but differ in respect to certain factors under study. Ex. following a cohort of truck drivers, some of whom smoke and some of whom dont, and tracking the incidence of lung cancer vs each individuals smoking habits. Experimental Study - a treatment or factor is intentionally introduced, and the outcome is measured. Ex. a fitness instructor gives half of her fitness group an herbal supplement, and half the group a sugar pill, and measures the differences in outcome at the end of six weeks. ▯ Communicable Disease Control – Chapter 8 ▯ 1. Describe the modes of transmission for communicable diseases. Direct transmission: occurs by immediate transfer of infectious agents from a reservoir to a new host Indirect transmission: occurs when the infectious agent is transported within contaminated inanimate materials such as air, water, or food (vehicle-borne transmission) Vector transmission: occurs when the infectious agent is carried by a vector (nonhuman carrier such as an animal or insect) Airborne transmission: occurs through droplet nuclei—the small residues that result from evaporation of fluid from droplets emitted by an infected host 2. Explain the strategies used for the three levels of prevention in communicable disease control. Primary prevention: vaccination, hand-washing, limiting exposure to pathogens. Secondary prevention: early detection of illness, prevent infected person from spreading illness further. Tertiary prevention: Care and treatment; minimize damage done to infected person. 3. Discuss ethical issues affecting communicable disease infection control. Enforced compliance Confidentiality, privacy, and possible discrimination against persons infected with certain stigmatized diseases. ▯ Environmental Health and Safety – Chapter 9 ▯ 1. Discuss concepts of prevention to health impact and environmental health. Identify environmental risk factors that can influence health, and work to eliminate those. 2. Discuss guiding documents for public health nursing. Environmental Principles for Public Health Nursing ANA’s Principles of Environmental Health for Nursing Practice American NursesAssociation (ANA) Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice Standard 16 Environmental Health Healthy People 2020 Initiatives Core Functions of Public Health 3. Discuss how the core functions of public health can be applied to public health nursing. Assessment Monitoring health status The diagnosis and investigation of health hazards into the community Assurance The enforcement of policy Policy development Provides guidance through the essential community services Engages scientists to analyze and develop policies to ensure health based upon sound evidence 4. Relate the effect of environmental hazards to human health. Outdoor air quality Surface and ground water quality Toxic substances and hazardous wastes Homes and communities Infrastructure and surveillance Global environmental health ▯
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