Week 3: Wednesday 1/20 - In-class and textbook notes
Week 3: Wednesday 1/20 - In-class and textbook notes BIOL 3040
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
WEEK 3: In-class and textbook notes 1/20- Wednesday: Protists and Algae Review: 1. Biological Classification a. Eukarya: has eukaryotic cells b. Plantae: a land plant c. Anthophyta: a flowering plant d. Monocot: has one seed leaf e. Liliales/Liliaceae: belongs to the order and family that includes lilies f. Tulipa: a tulip g. agenesis: the “eyed tulip” 2. Phylogenetics a. Phylogeny: the hypothesized evolutionary history or genealogical relationships among taxa b. Phylogenetic tree: how the evolutionary relationships among organisms are depicted 3. Phylogenetic classification a. Monophyletic: taxa includes an ancestor and all its descendents b. Paraphyletic: taxa includes common ancestor but not all its descendents c. Polyphyletic: taxa contain members from more than one ancestral line (common ancestor of all taxa is not included) 4. Alternation of Generation a. b. this is sporic meiosis: the sporophyte, or diploid individual, produces haploid spores as aresult of meiosis. These spores don’t function as gametes but undergo mitotic division. This gives rise to multicellular haploid individuals (gametophytes) which eventually produce gametes that fuse to form diploid zygotes. These zygotes differentiate into diploid cells. this kind of cycle (aka alternation of generation) is characteristic of plants and many algae 5. Isomorphic vs. Heteromorphic a. Isomorphic: haploid gametophyte generation and diploid sporophyte look the same i. *characteristic of many algae b. Heteromorphic: haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generation look different i. Characteristics of plants and some algae ii. One generation is usaully dominant (*gametophyte in nonvascular plants, sporophyte in vascular plants) 6. Isomorphic alternation of generations a. gametophyte and sporphyte look the same b. Gametophyte produces gametes through mitosis occurs in *****gametangia***** c. One the gametes are produced fuse to form a zygote zygote divides by mitosis produces a sporphyte d. Sporophyte makes flagellated spores via meiosis occurs in sporangia e. Spores divide by mitosis produces new gametophytes f. g. ** The gametes that look the same way are isogamous, the land plants that look different are anisogamous** 7. Difference between Isogamous, Anisogamous, and Oogamous a. Isogamous: motile gametes are identical sizes b. Anisogamous: gametes are different sizes/forms c. Oogamous: gametes are different sizes/forms one is small and motile (male) and one is large and non-motile (female)*** Protists: Algae and Heterotrophic Protists 1. Protists: diverse array of descendents of early eukaryotes a. Almost all live in water b. Algae protists that are photosynthetic c. Protists include eukaryotes that don’t have the distinctive characteristics of those of the kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, or Animalia d. ** protist groups function as primary producers, using light energy to manufacture their own foods** 2. Algae: very diverse a. Both unicellular and multicellular b. Different chloroplast origins c. Different storage polysaccharides d. Different storage polysaccharides e. Different cell wall materials f. Sexual and asexual reproduction g. Zygotic, sporic, and gametic meosis 3. *Need to memorize GREEN ALGAE a. 4. Green Algae a. Habitat: freshwater and marine, some terrestrial b. Form: unicellular/multicellular c. Flagella: see chart d. Chloroplast: primary e. Pigments: see chart f. Reproduction: asexual and sexual sexual reproduction varies frm fusion of identical gametes (isogamy) to fertiliation of a large non-motile gamete by a smaller one (oogamy) g. Carb reserve: see chart h. Cell surface: see chart i. Comment: the Charophyceae gave rise to green plants 5. Cladogram: know everything on the right side a. b. Chlorophytes are the most distantly related to land plants (charophyceae) 6. Similarities between Coleophaetales/Charales and Bryophytes a. Multilayered structure associated with flagellar base b. Breakdown of the nuclear membrane during cell division * Nuclear envelope completely breaks down from cytokinesis c. Phragmoplasts guide cell plate formation during cell division i. Phragmoplast: a microtubule structure that forms during cytokinesis serves as a scaffold for cell plate assembly ii. Cell plate: bunch of cell wall materical that srtars to develop in between the two daughter cells iii. d. Phytochrome: a photoreceptor- a plant knows when its shaded because of its ability to sense access to light; it is specific to certain light—the little bit of light is depleted in small wavelengths; *specific to sensing red light; also senses the quality of light and proximity of another plant i. e. Flavonoids: generally protective pigments; absorb and bleed off excess energy that the photosynthetic pigments can’t process i. f. Cuticle Precursors: waves that all plants to colonize land by sealing themselves off of excessive water loss; all plants have this wax i. g. Oogamy: one gamete is small and motile (male) and one is large and non-motile (female) i. *** See page 357 for picture ii. Gametophytes have both anthordium and oogonium iii. Retention of the zygote male and female gametes meet, the zygote doesn’t leave the gametophyte and the sporophyte stays attached the the gametophyte h. Sporopollenin: found in the spore cell walls of plants, in some plants it surrounds and protects the zygotes but in others it protects the spore; it is the most resistant biopolymer*** helps cells survive harsh conditions and almost impossible to degrade i. Apical Growth: cell division occurs at the tip of every shoot and the tip of every root; j. Chloroplasts with grana: photosynthetic plastics with two outer membranes, inside there’s a membrane called grana (essentially there are 3 levels) i. ii. Light green is lipid bi-layer: hollow and filled with watery matrix iii. Lumen: matrix that’s inside the flattened water balloon-like structures iv. Thylakoids: membrane part v. Granum: stacks of structure key link between bryophytes and algae vi. Stroma: structure that holds everything together but also separates the different structures 7.
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