Anth 120: Jan 25, 27 Notes
Anth 120: Jan 25, 27 Notes ANTH 120 - 003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savanna Bashore on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 120 - 003 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Kandace Renee Hollenbach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Prehistoric Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Anthropology 120 1/25/16 “Archaeological Sites” Finding a site Creating a site Create a research question and reference literature to gather more information Understand the geology of the area – which layers will you need to study? Find out what artifacts you should be looking for (through research) Accidental discoveries are very common Systematic Survey Remote Sensing – use of satellite images, areal images, gradiometer survey Excavation Subsurface excavations better are preserved Horizontal excavation – used to study one time period Vertical excavation – used to study the how the use of a site changes over time A single site can only be dug once to preserve the sites for future study Materials include tools such as cameras, rulers, trowels, brushes, line levels, etc – you want to record as much data as possible because a specific site can only be dug once Goals of Archaeology Recreate chronology Reconstruct past ways of life Reconstruct cultural pathways Infer a dynamic past society from the static archaeological record – assume they were changing peoples just as we are Do this through analogy, empirical evidence, experience of archaeologist, biased by questions asked – different archaeologist based on their experiences will interpret evidence from a different perspective “Human Origins” Humans don’t come from apes – they evolved separately from a common ancestor 6 million years ago [mya] Evolution = changes over time Genes are passed down through generations – idea of decent with modification, this variation comes from mutation [MUTATIONS ARE RANDOM! – can be harmful, pose no difference, or be beneficial] Natural Selection – “survival of the fittest” – an organism is fit if they have a survival advantage in a particular setting [London peppered moth example] Primate Heritage Timeline Terrestrial insectivores [5565 mya] Some then became arboreal [3855 mya] Some then return to the ground – forest and savannah habitats Diversified diets – selective behaviors based on what is available **humans can adapt to many environments because of diversified diets Physical Characteristics Rotating Arms Hands and Feet Flat nails instead of claws Highly developed vision – “stereoscopic” Social Behavior – “complex and cooperative” Large brains to monitor and interpret environment, to accommodate high level of social interaction, and to accommodate hand eye coordination What makes us human? Physical Characteristics Less hair Bipedalism Walking Erect Skeletal Structure Larger Brain Fine Tuned Motor Skills Longer Postreproductive Life Behavioral Characteristics Different Level of Cognition Social Hierarchies Sexual Dimorphism (less of it) Use of sophisticated language Hunting for Meat Transport Food Sexual Division of Labor Anthropology 120 1/27/16 Human Origins Continued Defining human characteristics Physical characteristics Foramen magnum Reduced teeth and face – no sagittal crest – indicates a softer diet Increase in cranial capacity – large brains Larger birth canal Prolonged infancy in children Long postreproductive life Behavioral characteristics Tool use is more complex Routine food sharing Use of a “home base” – apes have nests that move nightly Food preparation Sexual division of labor – men hunt, women gather More of a notion of a “family unit” Language – apes not developed enough to have complex language like humans [though chimps can use sign language] “Derived traits”a biological trait that has changed over time from the ancestral form and/or function that was present in the species from which it came (aka not present in a common ancestor) “Ancestral [primitive] Trait – traits that are seen in common ancestors Paleontological Sites vs. Archaeological Sites: paleo sites contain hominid fossils while archaeological sites contain either isolated stone tools in primary or secondary deposits, usually coupled with hominid fossils as well Primate species to be discussed… Aegyptopithecus [35 mya] Small fruit eating primate Had very good eyesite Proconsul “dental ape” [20 mya] Walked on the souls of the feet – suggests a more erect form of locomotion, no knuckle walking Sahelanthropus [7 mya] A more humanlike positioned foramen magnum Thrived in open grassland/woodland setting Only a skull has been recovered – ape or hominid? (not sure) Ape like head, but human like dentition Ardipithecus Ramidus Hand/wrist anatomy could not be used for knuckle walking Though still had an opposable toe – suggests some tree climbing Smaller teeth – more human like Flat feet – more ape like Arm vs leg length still relatively equal – more ape like Austrolopithecus Anemensis [4 mya] Anatomy suggests less time spent in trees Ape like skull and dentition A. Afarensis “Lucy” Bipedal species Had an arched food soul – human trait Nonopposable big toe Short legs, long arms – more ape like Footprints found in Laetoli, Tanzania – found preserved in volcanic ash (88 ft of them) A. Africanus Larger brain capacity Child – about 3 years Found at Taung site – found eagle talon marks on orbital socket that are most likely cause of death Paranthropus “beside human” P. Boisei, Robustus, and Aethiopicus “the robust australopithecines” – large jaw muscles and strong features Lived alongside multiple homo species A. Garhi Only have found a skull Long femur – longer human like strides Stone tool use evidence H. Habilis “handy man” Thought to be the first species to use tools, though now it has been discovered that many Austrolopiths used tools as well Smaller, more human like features – more gracile
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