BSC 215- Week 2 Notes
BSC 215- Week 2 Notes BSC 215
Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for BSC 215- Week 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/16
BSC 215- Week 2 Notes Lecture 1 -Anatomy and Physiology Core Principles- Learning Outcomes: 1. What are the 7 characteristics of life? 2. Major structural levels of organization 3. Principle of homeostasis 4. How negative and positive feedback loops regulate homeostasis 5. How are structure and function related? 6. Define gradient using examples physiological processes 7. Explain how cells communicate with each other LO 1. 7 Characteristics of Life **Living things have: a (1) cell membrane and (2) hereditary material 1. Homeostasis 5. Adaptation 2. Organization 6. Response to Stimuli 3. Metabolism 7. Reproduction 4. Growth -single-celled=pop. Growth -multi= grow in size LO 2. Describe major structural levels of organization of the human body See figure in text Chemical o Cellular Tissue Organ o Organ system Organismal LO 3. Describe the principle of homeostasis DEFINITION: The creation and maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment to facilitate the numerous physiological processes that cells undergo. **Internal environment is determined by physiological variables Temp., pH, [blood glucose], osmotic balance, [blood O 2CO 2, Vitamin D levels (not regulated) Regulation by: DEFINITION: set point=avg. value in normal range **Room temp. Example: Begins with stimulus of room temp. below set point **Human Body example: Begins with stimulus of core body temp below set point LO 4. Explain how (-) and (+) feedback loops maintain homeostasis Change in regulated variable results in effects that feedback to the same variable LO 5. How are structure and function related? **Form follows function at all levels of organization EX- lung tissue IN respiration The tissues in he lung are thin, allowing gases to cross rapidly LO 6. Define gradient using examples that drive physical processes LO 7. Explain how cells communicate with each other and why its essential for multicellular organisms **cell to cell communication is required to coordinate physiology and maintain homeostasis Chemical Signaling: Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Juxtacrine Electrical Signaling In order to signal: 1. Ability to generate signal 2. Ability to recept CLICKER QUIZ (1/19) Group of cells working together to complete common function o Tissue All living organisms composed of 1 or more cells o True Which statement is false? o (+) feedback loops work in (-) feedback loop fashion A gradient exists when: o All temperature, concentration, pressure Not one of 7 characteristics o Ability to conduct Lecture 2 -Matter, Energy and Enzymes- Learning Outcomes 1. Electrons, protons, neutrons-distinguish atomic number and mass number 2. Compare/contrast atoms with elements and identify 4 major elements 3. What are isotopes and radioisotopes? 4. Distinguish between solutions, solvents, colloids and suspensions 5. Describe how the valence shell determines chemical reactivity 6. What are ions and electrolytes? 7. Compare/contrast ionic, non-polar covalent, polar covalent and hydrogen bonds using examples INTRO Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space -mass (always the same) vs. weight (different by locale) States: -solid-defined shape and volume -liquid-undefined shape, defined volume -gas- undefined shape and volume LO 1. Describe elecrons, protons and neutrons and distinguish atomic number from mass number Atoms (usually) consist of: Protons, neutrons, electrons - Atomic #=proton # Atoms have mass: - Protons and neutrons each weigh 1 AMU, electrons are negligible Atomic mass= n(protons)+n(neutrons) Atoms are (usually) electrically neutral - N(protons)(+)=n(electrons)(-) LO 2, Compare and Contrast atoms with elements and identify he 4 major elements found in the body Element: simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties EX water molecule **A proton is always a proton MOST prevalent bond in body= covalent bond 4 major macromolecules: Lipids, Carbs, proteins, nucleotides made up of C,N,O and H (4 MAJOR ELEMENTS) LO 3. What are isotopes and radioisotopes? !!!Atoms that differ ONLY in the # of neutrons!!!! and therefore mass Atomic Weight: weighted average mass of all isotopes for that atom Isotopes chemically behave the same way -BUT physically unstable isotopes (radio) decay **Physical half life: constant (average) VS> **Bio half life: how often molecules are recycled In the body Hydrogen Isotopes HydrogenDeuterium (1 neutron) Tritium (2 neutrons) LO 3. What are isotopes and radioisotopes? -Radioisotopes emit high energy radiation as their nuclei decay o Low penetrance o Particles don’t travel far o Alpha and beta particles o Alpha: Don’t move very far o Nucleus ejects 2 protons and neutrons o Beta: 1 electron doesn’t go far, absorbed by something else o High Penetrance o Often results in cancer, damage to genes o Gamma rays High energy photons Act at a distance !!! ALL produce dangerous ions and free radicals!!! LO 4. Distinguish solutions, solvents, colloids and suspensions 2 Ways to Combine matter: 1. Mixtures a. Different atoms combined to retain their chemical properties and can be physically separated 1. Suspensions: blood 2. Colloids: milk 3. Solutions: glucose and water 2. Chemical bonds a. Combined to have new chemical properties and the resulting molecules can only be separated chemically LO 5. Describe how the valence shell determines chemical reactivity Octet/Duet rule trying to get 8 electrons in outer shell **Lowest energy state= stable (already) Covalent sharing (STRONG) Ionic Donation (NEG,POS) LO 6. What are ions and electrolytes? Ions= charged particles (elements/ molecules) **Unequal # of protons and electrons -Ionization o Octet rule o Atoms with less than 4 valence electrons give them up Cations (+) o Atoms with more than 3 and less than 8 valence electrons gain more Anions (-) -Electrolytes=substances that ionize in water ( can conduct electricity) anions and cations are separable LO 7. Compare and contrast ionic, non polar covalent, polar covalent and hydrogen bonds using biological examples o Ionic- transfer of electrons between atoms o Non polar covalent- equal sharing o Polar covalent- unequal sharing (partial charges) o H bonds- attractions between polar molecules (partial) o Van de Waal’s- brief attractions between temp. polar molecules Clicker Quiz (1/22) 4 major elements in human body o C, O, N, H Isotope: o Same atomic #, different mass Lithium- atomic #3, mass #7 o 3 protons, 4 neutrons, 3 electrons Muddy sample o Suspension Molecule of Hyd. Able to form bonds with water o false
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'