Week 1 Notes
University of Hartford
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giselle Foss on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 213 at University of Hartford taught by Dr. Bharat Bushan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Hartford.
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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
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Date Created: 01/22/16
The Endocrine System The endocrine system… 1. regulates long-term processes a. growth b. development c. reproduction 2. Uses chemical messengers to relay information and instruction between cells Hormone Secreting Glands in the brain Hypothalamus Production of ADH, OXT, and other hormones Pituitary Gland 2 parts: o Anterior Lobe ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH o Posterior Lobe Release oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone Pineal Gland Melatonin Other Hormone Secreting Structures *Parathyroid glands secrete PTH Thyroid Gland Adrenal Gland Pancreatic Islets Thyroxin Epinephrine Insulin Triiodothryronine norepinephrine Glucagon Calcitonin cortisol aldosterone Andogrens Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions Heart Thymus Adipose Digestiv Kidneys Gonads Tissue e Tract ANP Thymosin Leptin Glucose EPO Andogren s s BNP Calcitriol Inhibin Communication Classes of Hormones Hormones can be divided into 3 groups: 1. amino acid derivatives 2. peptide hormones 3. lipid derivatives Secretion and Distribution of Hormones Hormones circulate freely throughout the bloodstream or travel bound to special carrier proteins Amino Acid Derivatives Small molecules structurally related to amino acids: 1. derivatives of tyrosine a. Thyroid hormones b. Catecholamines i. Epinephrine ii. Norepinephrine 2. Derivatives of tryptophan a. Dopamine, serotonin, melatonin Peptide Hormones Are chains of amino acids Most are synthesized as prohormones o Inactive molecules converted to active hormones before or after they are secreted Glycoproteins o Proteins are more than 200 amino acids long and have carbohydrate side chains TSH LH FSH Short polypeptides/small hormones o Short chain polypeptides Antidiuric hormone and oxytocin Both are 9 amino acids long o Small proteins GH and prolactin o All other secreted hormones Lipid Derivatives Eicosanoids- derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon fatty acid o Paracrine factors that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting) in ECF o Some eicosanoids have secondary roles as hormones o A second group of eicosanoids- prostaglandins- involved primarily in coordinating local cellular activies Mechanisms of Hormone Action Hormone receptor o Is a protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly o Responds to several different hormones o Different tissues have different combinations of receptors o Presence or absence of specific receptor determines hormonal sensitivity First Messenger Leads to second messenger May act as enzyme activator, inhibitor, or cofactor Results in change in rate of metabolic reactions Important Second messengers: o Cyclic-AMP Derivatives of ATP o Cyclic-GMP Derivatives of GTP o Calcium ions The Process of Amplification The binding of a small number of hormone molecules to membrane receptors Down-regulation Presence of hormone triggers decrease in number of hormone receptors When levels of a particular hormone are high, cells become less sensitive to it Up-Regulation Absence of hormone = increase of receptors G-Protein Enzyme complex coupled to membrane receptor Involved in link between first and second messenger cAMP and G-proteins o Adenylate cyclase is activated when hormone binds to receptor at membrane surface and changed concentration of second messenger cAMP within cell
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