FOS 2001 Man's Food: Lesson 3 - The Cell
FOS 2001 Man's Food: Lesson 3 - The Cell Fos 2001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Sherr on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Fos 2001 at University of Florida taught by Agata Olga Kowalewska in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Lesson 3: The Cell Cells in the Human Body Make a flow diagram of how cell come to make systems such as the nervous system. CellsTissuesOrgans (liver/heart/spleen)Systems (digestive/nervous/circulatory)Human being The Primeval Sea List the five conditions needed for a cell to survive Abundant oxygen Abundant water Constant temperature Constant acidity Constant osmatic pressure More Conditions Necessary for Life to Exist What is bulk for dilution? More size = greater protection against detrimental elements and toxins Define anatomy. The term anatomy (the science of the structure of living organisms) is derived from two Greek terms: “tomy” meaning to cut, and “ana” – meaning apart. Greek anatomists began their study of the human body by “cutting apart” or dissecting preserved animals or organs. Define physiology. The term physiology (the science of the functioning of living organisms) is also derived from two Greek terms: “ology” – meaning the study of, and “physio” – meaning nature. Physiology focuses on how the body and its parts function. What is the most complex structural organization level? Organ System What is the smallest unit of all living things? Cells Define an organ. A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a special function for the body. List the eleven organ systems. 1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovascular 7. Lymphatic 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive 10. Urinary 11. Reproductive What is the body’s largest organ system? Integumentary List the three categories of muscles. Skeletal (bone) Visceral (organ) Cardiac (heart) What is the function of the cardiovascular system? (Circulatory) Transports nutrients/other substances to the cells Transports waste away from cells The urinary system is known as the excretory and is involved in wasteremoval such as nitrogen containing wastes. Define metabolism. The term that refers to all the chemical processes in the organism. Describe a basic human life cycle. Reproduction occurs at the cellular level in producing the sex cells (sperm and eggs), as well as at the organism level for the production of the offspring. The union of the sperm and egg results in an embryo, which must implant in the uterus of the female. The developing fetus will continue to develop into a baby through the gestational period. What are the three components involved in regulating homeostasis? Receptor: responds to changes in the environment (or stimuli) Control Center: analyzes the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action Effector: responds by counteracting change or has a effect on the controlled condition Give an example of a “positive” feedback loop in the human body, Blood clotting Childbirth What is considered to be the anatomical position? The body is standing erect, face forward with feet parallel and arms hanging at the side, and with palms facing forward. What is the difference between a sagittal plane and a transverse plane? Sagittal plane – A cut made lengthwise, dividing the body into right and left parts. If the cut is made down the center of the body, it is referred to as a midsagittal plane which produces equal right and left parts. Transverse plane (cross section) – A cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts. The two large cavities that house and protect organs are dorsal and ventral. Matter is anything that takes up space and has weight. All matter is composed of a limited number of substances called elements. Which four elements are essential for the building blocks of life? Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen When two or more atoms combine chemically, a molecule is formed. What is the difference between a molecule and a compound? A molecule is composed of the same atoms while a compound is composed of different atoms. Inorganic Compounds, lack carbon and tend to be small, simple molecules. An example is water. Give examples for organic compounds. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins What are two of the most significant nucleic acids in the body? DNA RNA List the two fundamental roles of DNA. Replicates itself exactly before cell division. Provides instructions for building every protein in the body. Define enzymes. “Functional” proteins in that they act as catalysts for many chemical reactions in the body. Define catalyst. A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming a part of the product of the reaction. What chemical provides the energy for the body to perform its tasks? Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) How is ATP produced? Digestion of food Oxidation Basic Parts of a Cell List all of the major components of a basic cell. Plasma membrane Organelles Nucleus Lysosomes Mitochondrion Ribosome Rough/Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Cytosol Parts of the Cell Link Building Blocks List the three building block categories. Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nutritional Needs of Infants What is the first solid an infant should receive at six months old? Single Grain Cereal What types of foods should be avoided in infants under a year old? Chocolate Cheese Fish Strawberries Cow milk Egg whites Peanut butter Dietary Challenges of Adolescents When is the last change for the body to maximize peak bone mass? Adolescence Calcium, Vitamin D, and Iron are important because they contribute to bone and muscle growth. Nutritional Challenges for Adults What type of chemicals may help reduce the risk for certain diseases and illnesses? Phytochemicals Fiber may help reduce the risk of diverticulosis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and certain cancers. What preformed vitamin should be limited in adults to reduce the risk of osteoporosis? Vitamin A List the two vitamins that older adults possibly need to supplement in their diet. Vitamin D Vitamin B12
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