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SPAA 343 Week 2 Notes

by: Janell Barker

SPAA 343 Week 2 Notes SPAA 343

Janell Barker
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These cover dates 1/20-1/22/2016, as class was out for MLK day. These are notes about sound waves, for example, amplitude, frequency, what sounds are "too loud," etc.
Introduction to Audiology
Mr. Gregory Newman
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janell Barker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAA 343 at Ball State University taught by Mr. Gregory Newman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Audiology in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
1/20/2016 – Week 2  Condensation – molecules packed tightly together, more dense  If you are talking to someone with  Rarefaction – molecules widely spaced, hearing loss, don’t “yell”; it will cause more distortion less dense  The loudest animal is a whale – can  Think of it like a radio; if you turn it up make sounds of about 180 dB too loud, you lose clarity **prebyscusis can start in late twenties/early thirties; so it’s not only the elderly Wave Motion Congenital = born with it. It is not necessarily  Longitudinal wave runs parallel to wave genetic (your parent’s ‘fault’) motion  Transverse waves (more commonly  75% of all children will experience at seen in nature, i.e. ocean waves) have least one bout of otitis media before the age of 3 years, resulting in particle motion perpendicular to wave motion temporary hearing loss  Sound waves can be a weapon – fire  Otitis media affects the middle ear alarms of low frequencies can physically Assessment hurt your ears  Bone conduction – people that are not  Behavioral (requires response from born with ear canals; they can still hear patient) vs. physiological methods (difficult cases, ex. Cerebral palsy or 1/22/16 babies)  We test frequencies from 250 Hz to Behavioral 8,000 Hz  Pure tone hearing test  We can hear frequencies from 30-50 Hz to 20,000 Hz  Tests of speech hearing & understand  Typical speech frequencies are 500-  Tests for complex auditory functions (Ex. Dichotic listening) 4,000 Hz  Top part of wavelength is condensation, Physiological methods don’t require a response both part is rarefaction  Tympanometry (create variations of Audiology started after WWII air pressure in the ear canal)  We typically hear complex sounds in  Acoustic reflex tests (ossicular chain can stiffen for loud noises to protect the real world  Simple sounds are made from a piano, nerves) tuning fork, what we use to test people,  Optoacoustic emissions  Auditory brainstem response etc Cycle – from baseline pressure to maximum and back to baseline Source of Sound Frequency – number of cycles in a second (unit is Hertz, Hz)  Vibration of an object causing vibration of the surrounding (air) molecules Period – time it takes for 1 cycle to occur Amplitude – the magnitude of the pressure change from baseline Intensity – related to amplitude (unit decibel, dB) Pitch – the perceptual correlate of frequency Loudness – the perceptual correlate of intensity Calculating Frequency:  Count cycles in one second  Count cycles in a fraction of a second and then determine how many cycles would occur in one second (BTW, 1 second = 1000 milliseconds) E.g. 10 cycles/100 ms = x cycles/1000 ms Calculating Intensity:  Decibel Sound pressure level - dB SPL - dB SPL = 20 X log[Px/Pr] - where Px is the pressure measured and Pr is the reference pressure Levels of familiar sounds in dB SPL Bad: - 150 firecracker - 120 ambulance siren - 110 chainsaw, rock concert - 105 personal stereo system at maximum level - 100 wood shop, snowmobile - 95 motorcycle - 90 power mower - 85 heavy city traffic (this is where we get concerned; >84) Good: - 60 Normal Conversation - 40 refrigerator humming - 30 Whispered voice


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