EAPS 116: Week 1 Notes
EAPS 116: Week 1 Notes EAPS 116
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Weinkauf on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAPS 116 at Purdue University taught by Julie Elliot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Earthquake and Volcanos in Earth Sciences at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Lecture 1: January 12, 2016 Volcano - an opening in the earth’s crust that allows materials that are warmer than their surroundings to escape from those surroundings. o Eruption – escape of materials, such as lava, ash, gas, and other products. Earthquake – a sudden shaking of the ground caused by the sudden movement of parts of the earth’s crust. Most expensive natural disaster – 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami - $235 Billion Deadliest Earthquake – 1556 Shaanxi, China Earthquake – 830,000 Deadliest Volcano – 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) – 92,000 Hypothesis – Educated Guess that explains observation, must have possibility of being proven false Theory – Explanation that has been repeatedly confirmed through observations and experiments The Crust Thin, outermost layer of Earth Two types: o Continental 35-40 km thick Consists of many rocks Less dense than oceanic crust o Oceanic Avg. 7 km thick Contains mafic rocks (high amounts of iron and not much silica) More dense (heavy) The Moho Boundary between crust and mantle Named after physicist – Andrija Mohorovicic The Lithosphere Consists of the crust and uppermost mantle – relatively rigid Continental Lithosphere – 150 km Oceanic Lithosphere – 100 km The Asthenosphere Sits below lithosphere – entirely within mantle Plastic flow – like wax – flow rate 10-15 cm/yr Lecture 2: January 14, 2016 Historic Perspectives on Earthquakes Japan Records extend back 1600 years – more concerned with the effects rather than the reason Earthquakes explained through myths o Numazu Giant catfish that lives beneath the mud that causes the earth to shake Only be restrained by Kashima with a heavy stone o 1855 Edo Earthquake Killed thousands Occurred during “month without gods” – so Kashima was not holding stone on head so Numazu caused havoc China Records date back to 1800 BC Multiple Myths: o Frog carries world on back and when he twitches = earthquake o Dragons moving underground = earthquake Seismoscope/Earthquake Detector o Invented 2 ndcentury AD – Chang Heng o Dragon is positioned on urn in 8 key compass locations with a ball in his mouth, and a frog is positioned below him with his mouth open. The ball drops from the dragon’s mouth into the frogs when an earthquake occurs. Direction of balls motion indicates where earthquake occurred. The Pacific Northwest Oral traditions – Thunderbird and Whale – Ayahos (2 headed shape-shifting snake that causes earthquakes Alaska/British Columbia Giant frog/toad that lives in a cave Scandinavia Ferris Wolf – offspring of Loki and a giantess o Became so big and powerful Norse gods had to trap him underground Loki was punished by Norse Gods by being chained to a rock with poisonous snake above him. His wife/sister would catch the venom, but when she went to empty the bowl so would drop to Loki and he’d shake causing an earthquake Greece and Rome Religion o Poseidon/Neptune would stab the ground with his trident. He was the god of oceans and earthquakes o Rome – earthquakes were seen as a prodigy – that the gods and Roman people were out of harmony and something needed to be done to make gods happy Rational Philosophy o Thales of Miletus – suggested earth floated on water and that earthquakes could be caused by roughness of waves o Anaximes – suggested moisture and/or heat could cause parts of the earth to rot or weaken o Aristotle – suggested that strong winds whipped through caverns in the earth and occasionally escaped to the surface November 1 (All Saints Day), 1755 Lisbon Earthquake Magnitude 8.5-9 Deaths: 10-100,000 – earthquake, tsunami, and fires Earthquake hit, people rushed to shoreline where they were washed away by a tsunami, all while fires broke out 85% of properties destroyed – almost all churches – most records destroyed Earthquake felt all the way in the Caribbean o Effects of Earthquake Influenced Enlightenment and thought of what causes an earthquake Candide – Rockwell Kent 1 Documentation of Earthquakes Prime Minister of Portugal issued a questionnaire o Example ?s: What time did it start? How long did it last? What way did buildings fall? Modern Geology James Hutton (1726-1797) – Father of Modern Geology o Uniformitarianism – the past is the key to the present Charles Lyell (1797-1875) – wrote Principles of Geology o 1 to link earthquakes to faults in earth’s crust Alfred Wegener – continental drift
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